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Here are the factors:
1. Safety and Security
2. Transport Policy
3. Transport Management
4. Communication
5. Training.
Safety and Security
The issues of safety and security are universal factors that can affect  smooth operations of any mode of transport around the world. Since we all know that
transport plays an important role in human life, it’s a major means by which goods and people move from one place to another. Hence, transportation becomes  a potential target for criminals. The security weakness in transportation results to several attacks by these criminals on different modes of transport during operations. To this end, the issues of transport safety and security become paramount.
However, there are two major types of safety and security threats to smooth transport operations. These are terrorism and criminal activities. Terrorism is often used for political, social or religious reasons and the major target, among others, is transportation, e.g. September 11 attack on America. Criminal activities, on the other hand, involve high-way robbery, theft in railway transport and freight terminals, etc. These are significant challenges to any mode of transport operation in the world.
Transport Policy
Transport policy has to do with the advancement or creation of a set of considerations that are found to achieve acceptable objectives connecting to social, economic and environmental advancement and the functioning and efficiency of the transport system.
The aim of a good transport policy is to produce strong decision on the distribution of transport resorts or resources which include transport management and control of existing transport activities.
Moreover, in most countries of the world, transports are mostly owned and managed by private owners but governments are mostly involved in making transport policy for all transport modes with the aim of achieving a set of
particular goals.
In addition, the importance of transport policy is that it has the potential, either positively or negatively, to affect virtually every aspect of economic, social and political activities of nation states, e.g. deregulation and privatization.

Transport interchange, Freiburg, Germany. (tram stop on bridge over main railway station.) Stock Photo
Picture showing transport interchange in Freiburg, Germany.

Transport Management
Transport management operations involve all transport modes which have to do with managing all aspects of maintenance, fuel costing, scheduling, communications, carrier selection, cargo handling, staffing, even accounting, among others.
However, there are key factors of transformation that can effect change in
transport management of all transport modes of any given nation state. The
factors are:
*changes in work practices
*changes in customer behavior
*changes in technology
*changes in workloads
*external and unforeseen factors
*local peculiarities
*trade barriers

Communication
As transport plays an important role in the economy of any given nation, communication, in much the same vein, plays an important role in transportation. Transport system helps to create relationship among different parts of the peoples within a country and between two or more countries and strengthens the feelings of unity among them. However, to achieve this important role of transport, the role of communication in transportation becomes inevitable.
Communication, as it were, is the medium of passing data and news. Communication system assists all modes of transport service providers in any nation to take the right decisions at the right time by making information and news related with transport business available to them. Communication makes it possible for passengers to know about the transport fare of different transport providers in any part of the world in no time and it also helps the transport companies to manage transport operations accordingly through communication system.
Therefore, communication system facilitates transport advancement by making accurate information available for both transport service providers and their numerous passengers. As a result, poor communication system may affect the smooth transport operation of any nation.
Training
Training of the staff in transport business is very important. It’s a way of enhancing the staff skills for efficiency. Training also helps the thinking ability of the staff for quality performance. Training, in transport, is very important for development and success of any transport mode in any nation. Truly speaking, a well trained staff becomes more efficient and productive on his job.
When transport industries train their staff, it tends to enable them understand the mission, vision, working conditions and the rules and regulations of the organization better, thereby helping them key into the vision of the organization.