Global Transport and Logistics

Transport and logistics from around the world.

Author: peterowinje (Page 1 of 12)

5 SAFETY TIPS WHEN YOU ARE BEHIND THE WHEEL

Driving is a very important task that all motorists must not take for granted. As a result of the poor safety consciousness of some drivers, several avoidable accidents occur. When safety is compromised, many road users are sent to their early grave while many other innocent road users are left with permanent injury. A vehicle can pose serious danger on the road if the driver of such a vehicle fails to be safety conscious while driving. However, here are 5 safety tips a driver is expected to keep while driving:
  1. Be sure that your wing and rear-view mirrors are properly positioned, for you to see what is behind you.Image result for pictures showing drivers using car mirrorsImage result for pictures showing drivers using car mirrors
  2. Drive at a speed that is safe. Do not over-speed, it killsImage result for pictures showing drivers driving car at high speeds
  3. Be more tolerant of other road users.Image result for pictures showing drivers sharing road rage
  4. Be a good observer while making use of the roadRelated image
  5. When you drive don’t sleep and when you feel like sleeping park your car and sleep, it is highly dangerous to drive while drowsy.
Driving is a task that demands a high level of concentration in order to make our roads safe for all of us.

Sea Transport: A means for industrial growth

sea transport

sea transport

Marine transportation is undoubtedly boosting the growth of industry in the world. The mode is used for transporting the largest number of cargoes or containers across the globe more than any other modes, Millions of containers are moved across the sea virtually every day and no other mode of transport can match its capacity. Import and export of goods in large numbers around the world are made possible to a large extent through sea transportation. The efficacy of maritime transport to increase the growth of industries in the world cannot be underestimated. Industries producing different items in large quantities would prefer their products to be carried to where they are needed beyond their geographical locations. To achieve this purpose transport by sea is a better option than air transport in terms of capacity and affordability. Sea transport is highly cost effective and most importantly its capacity to carry heavy loads or bulk cargoes than any other mode in international transport cannot be overemphasized. Maritime transportation plays an important role in the industrial revolution of any nation and today, world trade growth record cannot be divorced from the impact of sea transportation. However, here are the ways that sea transport has contributed to the growth of industry in the world:
  1. It boosts trade expansion on alarge scale.
  2. It gives consumersthe benefit of having access to products that are produced by other nations.
  3. It is cheaper, thereby reducing the transportation cost that would have increased the cost of production.
  4. Regular and efficient maritime transportation is a means to reducing congestion at the sea port. In other words, it can be used to reduce congestion at the sea port.
  5. It boosts the nation’s
  6. It creates room for globalization. Marine transportation moves larger goods or cargoes from one continent or nation to another.
  7. Sea transportation serves as a complement to other modes of transport. Sea ports often serve as a point of loading and off-loading of cargoes.
  8. Maritime transport plays a key role in the globalized market. Global freight transportation is a critical element to industrial growth.
Base on the roles sea transport plays in industrial development, it is clear that it is a mode that enhances economic prosperity and quality of life.

Road Accidents in Nigeria And Its Erroneous Belief

Related image Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) reveals that 5,053 people lost their lives in road accidents in 2016 while in 2017, 5,049 people also lost their dear lives in road accidents. These figures show that in just 2 years, 10,102 road users in Nigeria, died in road accidents. In addition, National Bureau of Statistics and Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) also reveal that not less than 20,000 vehicles in Nigeria are involve in road accident. it is sad to note that Nigeria is among the leading nations in Africa with high rate of road accident. My observation revealed that each time an accident occurs on Nigerian roads, fairly large number of people believe it is an act of God. Therefore, you see many of the motorists, most especially the commercial ones drive recklessly on the roads even when they are sharing the road with haulage trucks. It is even more obvious among commercial motorcycle operators who believe that no accident can occur except God allows it and that no matter how reckless they drive, it can never lead to an accident. This is an erroneous belief that can result to an untimely death. As an individual, a high rate of road accidents in Nigeria is neither acceptable to me nor do I think it is acceptable to any Nigerian but oftentimes, when you see an accident occur on Nigerian roads, it will not take you a long time before you hear people giving their final conclusion on the whole matter by saying “It is an act of God”. They easily accept any accident that happens on Nigerian roads as an act of God. What a wrong conception! So, one may wonder if God had pre-destined many Nigerians to die by road accidents on daily basis. In addition, one may even be tempted to ask why God would choose road accidents as a means to kill thousands of people in Nigeria. These, among others, are the likely questions that may readily come to mind when one ponders on the frequency of road accidents and the general belief or common conclusion of many people on road traffic accidents as “the act of God” Accidents by circumstance are not God’s errors At this point, it is essential that the writer is neither an Imam nor a pastor over a church. Therefore, I am not looking at this erroneous belief from a religious perspective rather I am looking at it from a professional point of view. In all honesty, most accidents are caused by human errors. The Traffic Safety Council of Zimbabwe reveals that most road accidents in Zimbabwe happen as a result of human errors. According to the statistics given (in Zimbabwe), 93.4% of all accidents recorded during 2014/2015 festive periods were due to human errors. Source: Chronicle.co.zw Although, a man can be a victim of an accident by circumstances, this is a situation when a man who has no fault is involved in an accident caused by another man’s fault. Yet, this does not mean that the accident is an act of God, rather it is an avoidable occurrence caused by another man’s errors that makes an innocent man a victim by circumstance. A Case Study For instance, in 2015, an articulated vehicle carrying an unlatched container suddenly slipped off the truck and fell on a commercial bus at Illishan, Ogun State, Nigeria, killing all the12 passengers on board. However, 11 of the victims were said to be students of Olabisi Onabanjo University (OOU) and the last person was the driver of the said bus. In addition, the truck driver took to his heels and the truck has no registered number plate, making it so difficult to trace the truck owner and the driver. This particular accident was caused by a human error traceable to four set of people or agencies namely:
  • The truck owner
  • The truck driver
  • The traffic regulatory agencies e.g. The Police, The FRSC, The NSCDC, The VIO, and
  • The Government.
It was a high risk of negligence on the part of the truck owner and the truck driver to carry an unlatched container on public roads. It was also an error from the traffic regulatory agencies to allow an unlatched container to be carried on Nigerian roads without being checked or arresting the truck driver. The last but not the least is the responsibility of the government to make it a law forbidding any truck to carry an unlatched container on public roads. It should be realized that the failure to do and enforce this would amount to an error on the part of the government. However, the said students and the driver were the victims of an accident by circumstance. It was not the fault of the students to board a commercial bus and it was not the fault of the bus driver to use the public road or share the road with a haulage truck, yet they died in the accident they never bargained for by circumstance. It is painful and quite unfortunate that they were not the cause of the accident that claimed their lives. Their untimely deaths were determined by the errors of four categories of people mentioned above; otherwise, it would have been an avoidable accident. Another Case Study In 2013, on Christmas day, to be precise, a woman and her 4 children and 5 other people were killed when a container fell on a stationary commuter bus at Alaba Suru, in Lagos. It was revealed that the truck driver was trying to avoid killing a mad man who slept on the road when the container it carried fell from the truck. It is a pity that the woman, her 4 children and 5 other people were the victims of the accident by circumstance. The death that claimed their lives was not as a result of their own fault, it was the fault of 4 set of people mentioned above. The mad man that slept on the road only showcased a characteristic of a mad man because a normal human being can never sleep on the public road for any reason. So, the mad man might not share in the blame. Moreover, observation also reveals that some of the bus-stops on public roads are luxury apartments for lunatics to live. They make this important transport infrastructure their dwelling place without being checked, thereby making it so difficult for public use. However, the state or government environmental board should be blamed. It’s a menace or a threat to the public to see many mad men and women moving around the city and on the public roads. This is why the government environmental board or agency responsible for environmental sanitation should be blamed. It is expected of them to rise up to the task in reducing the menace constituted by lunatics on our public roads. However, the attempt made by the truck driver to avoid killing the mad man on the road was a good one but it was a big error of negligence for the driver to carry an unlatched container on the public road. Therefore, it was a human error that caused the death of 10 innocent people; otherwise it would have been an avoidable accident. Nonetheless, in transport profession, it is an erroneous assumption or belief to see the death of 11students, the driver , the 5 other people, the woman and her 4 children as the act of God rather it is the act of men known as “human error” which made innocent men victims by circumstance. In the recent time, observations from individuals and professional bodies have indicated that travelling by air is safer than travelling by road. In Nigeria today, hardly can one find a day without the occurrence of a road accident. On the other hand, it is almost a strange thing to hear of a plane crash in air transport throughout a particular year except for some occasional ones. Do you know that thousands of airplanes travel both locally and globally every day? The Federal Aviation Administration reveals that there are 30,000 flights a day in the US. Yet you will hardly hear the news of a plane crash as we have it in road transport on daily basis. My question to those that hold this erroneous belief is ‘Why doesn’t God choose to kill many people on daily basis through plane crashes as we have in road transport? According to Captain Dave Thomas “….commercial air travel is the safest mode in the world.” In all honesty, air transport is far safer than road transport. Why? It is because safety is not negotiable in air transport. This is the reason we don’t have frequent plane crashes on daily basis as we have it in road transport system. When there is a plane crash, the aviation industry tries to research the causes and makes efforts to prevent a future occurrence. Air safety cannot be overemphasized in the aviation industry. If road safety is given due consideration by all road users without being forced, the frequency of road carnages on daily basis will be a day dream and this erroneous belief that makes some motorists, most especially, commercial motorists and motorcyclists to throw caution into the air while making use of the road will no longer seem to have assigned function in a road accident. According to a traffic safety officer in Zimbabwe, Tatenda Chinoda, drivers’ errors are generally the major causes of road traffic accidents in Zimbabwe. Therefore, the high rate of traffic accidents in Nigeria and other parts of the world is not the act of God but the act of men even if an accident occurs due to a mechanical problem, it’s still a human error caused a by mechanical engineer.

Save your life, Your Seat belt, Your Savior

Your Seat belt can save your life.

Your Seat belt can save your life.

Over 15,000 lives are saved in United State each year in road accident because drivers and passengers were wearing seat belts. Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). In addition, in 2017, out of the 37,133 people died in road accidents, 47%  of them failed to wear the seat belt. Moreover, it was estimated that the use of seat belt saved 14,955 lives in 2017 alone. Source: NHTSA The NHTSA Regional Administrator, Thomas M. Louizou, said: “More than half the drivers and passengers being killed in crashes are not wearing seat belts. That is a major problem.” Seat belt is important to the point that it can save your life in an auto crash. This is one of the major reasons among others why you need to wear your seat belt while driving. However, here are the reasons why you need to wear your seat belt.
  1. Some countries make it a law for every motorist.
  2. It will help to prevent your face from hitting the windshield, if your car is stopped suddenly.
  3. When accident occurs and the car is somersaulted, a seat belt will hold you firm on your seat and keep you from being thrown from the vehicle.
  4. It keeps you from hitting against some parts of the vehicle while driving e.g. the door, the car steering wheel and the seat in front of you.
  5. The seat belts keep all the occupants e.g. the driver and passengers from hitting into each other, which may cause a serious injury in some accidents.
  6. In case of accident, airbags may be useless or ineffective if you fail to wear your seat belt; you may still end up being thrown from the car or hit against its parts e.g. the door, the windshield etc., and passengers. In addition, if you are not wearing your belt your body may not be in the best position that benefits from the protection of an airbag.
  7. The use of a seat belt may save your life; this is because death may come as a result from hitting the windshield, being thrown from the vehicle and banging against vehicle parts and passengers.
  8. Use of seat still remains the number one vehicle safety device.
  9. The use of seat belt helps to protect a pregnant woman and her unborn child in a car. However, the pregnant women are advised to wear the lap belt low, in such a way that it pulls downward on the pelvic bones. In other words, they should not wear it against their abdomen.
  10. It does not hurt to use a seat belt.
Without any element of doubt, wearing your seat belt can save you from unwanted accident and untimely death, do not prove otherwise, because your seat belt can be the only savior when accident occur.

Logistics: A Solution To Transport Complications

Picture Showing Cargoes at Sea Port for Logistics Operation

At times, there are situations when it will be difficult, if not impossible, for an organization to allocate transport services efficiently to the large quantity of goods or products needed to be transported or moved to the warehouse or where it is needed. Furthermore, increase in production of different products around the world coupled with the importation and exportation of different products or goods by different organizations in the world have created additional and structural complexity of cargoes at the seaports. In such times or situations, logistics becomes inevitable so as to capture and manage the movement of these high volume cargoes or goods. Logistics as a vital industry gives support to organizations in the area of controlling the flow and storage of products or goods of the organization into and out of an enterprise operation. These useful functions of logistics industry make it inevitable to the production and distribution of goods and trade. In simple language, logistics is designed to satisfy customer demands. In other words, logistics management plays an important role in planning, implementing, and controlling the movement and storage of goods and services and any vital related information between the producers or sellers and the buyers with the aim of satisfying the customer demands within a specified time. Logistics boost production, distribution trade and retail activities of an organization. Logistics also involves engaging in the task of supplying needed materials to a particular location and at a particular time to consistently back the production of goods and services. Here are the benefits of logistics to your organization: 1. It prevents extra cost on infrastructure: The establishment of any logistics firm with notable investments in the system and infrastructure to enhance smooth operations in the area of distribution and supply in order to give support to any customer or producing company in the area of storage, movement of materials and goods, thereby helping the producing companies to avoid extra expenses in dedicated facilities or infrastructures. 2. It prevents extra cost on fleet investments and maintenance: Engaging the services of a logistics firm gives production companies enormous relief of using trucks and equipment without bearing the direct cost of purchasing them, maintaining them, employing competent staff and drivers to carry out logistics operation, managing safety measures in compliance with relevant regulations, among others. 3. An economical use of space to reduce freight cost: Two or more customers’ freight going to the same particular area can be matched or arranged together by a logistics firm, in full truckloads, in order to reduce customer’s freight transportation cost. This kind of arrangement is more economical with space, time and resources. 4. Logistics industries carry the burden of responsibility during freight transportation for their various customers. They bear responsibility for compensation or any liability incurred, probably due to goods damaged in transit. 5. High capacity to deliver: Logistics industries are often made up of high professionals and highly skilled staff or personnel and with heavy duty equipment, vehicle fleet and infrastructure that enable them to manage freight transportation and distribution on national and global networks. 6. It serves as a means to reduce congestion at sea ports: Logistics industries have the ability to arrest cargoes congestion at the sea ports. They can move high volume of cargoes consistently to desired locations, thereby arresting undue congestion at the sea ports. 7. It can provide ‘just in time’ services within short notice: Logistics Company can also be used to meet urgent demands or distribution of certain products or material. Nonetheless, with continuous increase in production and international trade, it explains the need for improvement or change in logistics operations and better understanding in the area of inventory management, international customs, currency exchange, security, among others. The big logistics firms such as UPS, DHL, and FedEx among others play an important role in logistics industry. So today we have efficient and safe movement of goods at local, national and international levels through logistics industries. Continuous improvement on safe and timely delivery services are among the core values of logistics services.

Car Tyre: A Matter of Life and Death

It appears that car tyre safety has been overlooked or taken for granted by many motorists who do not care to know much about the tyres on their vehicle.Most motorists lack adequate tyre safety information or tips that can prevent severe accidents. Many drivers, mostly ladies, leave their tyre safety in the hands of roadside vulcanizers who may also be clueless. This may create more chances of severe injury or loss of life for the road users. It is important that your car tyres can save you from untimely death or unwanted injuries,if properly managed with safety. On the other hand, your car tyres can also cause untimely death or unwanted damage if poorly managed and this is the reason why tyre safety is very important, mostly to prevent untimely death and injury. Many road users have undoubtedly lost their precious lives on road accidents due to tyre failure. For instance, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) reveals that over 400 deaths occurred every year due to tyre failures or blowouts and 78, 000 crashes occurred every year. The frequency of tyre blowouts is highly worrisome.For instance, tyre blowout statistics also reveals that majority of accidents that occurred from 2005 to 2007, and involving over 2 million vehicles were caused by tyre related issues. Here are tyre safety tips you must know: 1. Know your tyre pressure: Most times, motorists do not take time to know the proper tyre pressure recommended by the manufacturer of their tyres. They leave this importanttyresafetymeasure into the hands of roadside vulcanizers who may also be clueless about it.Motorists must try to know the pressure of their car tyreincluding the spare tyre every month. 2. You must check your tyre tread: A tread worn-out tyre is dangerous because it creates more chances for the tyre to slip or slid which may lead to unwanted accident.The adhesive friction of a tyre on the road surface onwhich it movesmust not be in doubt. Motorists must ensure to check their tyre tread every month. 3. You must maintain proper wheel alignment between the two tyres: This is essential if you want to enjoy the maximum lifespan of your tyre, and stop your vehicle from changing direction suddenly when driving due to imbalanced alignment. Therefore, every motorist needs to balance their vehicle alignment. 4. Always use the tyre size recommended by your vehicle manufacturer: Every manufacturer of any product has useable information about its products to the consumers or users. Such information or warning must not be taken for granted or ignored if you desire to enjoy the product, most especially when the information has to do with safety. 5. Do not use ageing tyre: Every tyre has an expiry date; you need to replace them when due.Using ageing tyres creates more chances for accidents to occur. Life is good and your life is precious; the issue of tyre safety must be a major concern for all motorists than any other category of road users.Every road user must not be ignorant of potential safety hazards that may come as a result of poor tyre management. Every road user must rise up to the task to reduce high rate of accident related to tyre failure. It pays to be safety conscious.

Don’t Be In Danger Of Losing Your Life and Others: Know The Tires That Move Your Around

Range Rover, Car, Range, Rover, Vehicle, Land, Drive You must know the tire in your car. In fact, you are at risk if you don’t know the tires that move you around, l personally asked some drivers or motorist two or more questions about their car tires but, their response to my questions show to me that their car tires may put them at risk or bring to them untimely death. Why? It is because they lack adequate knowledge on the tires that move them around. It is unfortunate that most drivers don’t have any vital information on the round black objects that move them around. Such motorists or drivers may pose a high risk on themselves and other road users that is why it is important for you as a motorist to know much about the tires on your car. Here is some of the important information you need to know: M/S; M+S; MS or M&S: When you see any of these letters on your tire it means such tire has the ability to move your vehicle on a snow and muddy area, with these letters on your tires show that the tires meet the Rubber Manufacture Association guidelines for mud and snow tire. The Tire Width: 235 is the width of a tire measure in millimeters (mm). It is usually measure from sidewall to sidewall. However, the measurement is determined by the size of the rim. The Tire Aspect Ratio: Aspect ratio is a number that shows the height of the tire from the head to the top of the tread. This is always expressed in percentage of the width. For example, if the aspect ratio of a tire is 75 then the height of the tire is 75% of the given width i.e. (7 5×235/100) =176.25mm. Therefore, the aspect ratio is 175.25mm; hence, the smaller the aspect ratio the wider the tire in relation to is height. The Tire Traction: Tire traction is usually rated as AA; A; B or C. AA is the highest grade in the rating follow by A, B and C respectively. This rating base on the tire ability to stop a car on wet concrete or asphalt, however, when you see a tire carrying any of these letters on its sidewall, it is simply, showing the tire traction ability of the tire. It is usually written like this on the tire Traction AA; Traction A; Traction B or Traction
  1. Temperature: The tire temperature rating is a measure of how well the tire dissipates heat and how well it handles the buildup of heat. The temperature grade is applied to a properly inflated tire that is not over loaded. However, overloading, under inflation or excessive speed are all notable factors that can make your tire to build up heat and excessive heat build up on your tire can cause your tire to wear out faster and it may even lead to tire failure. It is important to note that, tire temperature is usually rated as A, B or C. So when you check the side wall of your tire and you see any of these following: Temperature A or Temperature B or Temperature C. It simply shows you the temperature ability of the tire.
The Tread Wear: First and foremost, please note that the higher the tread wear number the longer you can expect the tread to last. Before the tread numbers can be generated, the tire must be tested in controlled conditions on government test track. However, since no one will be expected to drive his or her own car on exactly, the same surface at the same speed as the government testing track then, the numbers are not accurate indicator of how long your tread will actually last, but it is a good relative measure, therefore you can expect the tire that carries or has lager number to last longer than the one with smaller number. However, the tread wear number is usually written on the tire side wall like this: Tread wear 440 etc. Service Description: The service description of a tire consists of two major areas which are Load rating and Speed rating.
  • Load Rating: This is also a number correlates to the maximum load rated for the tire. It shows to us the maximum Kg that a tire can carry. Therefore, a higher number means that the tire has the higher loading capacity. Nevertheless, a separate note on the tire usually written after the loading rating indicates the loading rating of your tire at a given inflation pressure. E.g.
Max. Load 880 kg (35-psi) Max. Press. Standard load This is an example of how the load rating and the recommended air pressure are written on your tires. Speed Rating: The letter that follows the load rating indicates the maximum speed allowable for such tire as long as the weight is at or below the rated load. For instance, letter S indicates that the tire can handle speed up to 112 mph i.e. (180.246 kph). The Tire Manufacturing Date: Whenever you want to buy or get a new tire, one of the first things you need to consider or look for is the manufacturing date of the tire you want to buy. This is because a tire is expected to expire after six (6) of its production or manufacturing date. It does not matter whether such tire is used or not, a tire expires after six (6) year of production. Why? It is because tires deteriorate naturally day after day and at the expiration of six (6) years the quality of such tires must have reduced drastically. Hence, it is possible to buy a brand new tire that has not been used before which is indeed an expired tire from the store or seller, that is why you need to check the manufacturing date of the tire before buying it. How to Check a Tire Manufacturing Date: If you do not know how to check the date from the sidewall of a tire you may end up buying an expired tire. However, the tire manufacturing date is usually different from the common way we are used to write date of an event. For example the date is usually written like this (1012) or (1314) or (3613) etc. However, it is important to note that the first two figures refer to the week of production while the last two figures refer to the year of production. For instance, (1012) means 10th (tenth) week of the year 2012, (3613) means 36th week of the year 2013, etc. Therefore, if the manufacturing date of a tire is (1314) such tire is expected to expire after six (6) years of the said date which is (1320).

Understanding Transport Economics

U.S. Close to Proceeding With Mexico-Only Trade Deal Transport economics is one of the most interesting courses I underwent as a university undergraduate in the department of Transport Planning and Management. It is a comprehensive economic knowledge that focuses on efficient transport operation with less expenditure in order to strengthen the nation’s economy. Transport history reveals that transport, as it were, is as old as the existence of man’s creation on earth. Then, the personal and biological responsibility of man to search for his needs, mostly his daily food, could not be fully realized without an element of transport for his mobility; and the only relevant means of transport then was walking. Till now, walking still remains an indispensable and unique means of mobility. Truly speaking, it is difficult, if not impossible, to see a man who would engage in any activity without walking or without the use of any transport element. However, a report of the economic activities of any given country is not complete without notable reference to the impact of transportation on the nation at large. The various demands for transport and the supply of transport facilities or resources such as road transportation network, rail tracks, ports as well as vehicle and vessels to meet such demands play a notable part in building and strengthening both rural and urban economy. It is also a notable factor in the development of other resources. These explain the need for transport economics. In addition, the activities through which goods and services are produced, sold and bought within and outside a country cannot be possible without the element of transportation. Transportation gives undeniable support to production and trade in any region of a nation; therefore, the significance of transport economics cannot be overlooked in building a nation’s economy. What is Transport Economics? In economics, there are various areas of knowledge developed to solve various economic problems in different disciplines with the main focus to strengthen the national economy. For better understanding, these developed areas of economic knowledge are worthy of mention, and they include Industrial Economics, Agricultural Economics, National Economic Planning, Public Finance Economics, International Economics, Behavioural Economics, Ecological Economics, Environmental Economics, Health Economics, Information Economics, Monetary Economics, Population Economics, Urban Economics, among others. However, the question still remains: What is Transport Economics? Transportation is concerned with the movement of people, goods and services from one place to another; while economics on the other hand is concerned with resources allocation. Therefore, transport economics is concerned with the careful allotment and efficient use of transport resources to meet various specific transport demands in the society or within an organization. Transport economics aims to find maximum-value-use and less expenditure of all transport resources and infrastructure such as roads, vehicles, rail tracks, vessels, ports, railway stations, rail yards, signal systems, ships, airports, traffic control systems, etc., to meet particular or various transport demands. The transport sector is faced with various factors that could affect its growth such as congestion, competition, shortage and poor infrastructure, political barrier, to mention a few. Hence, the need to apply economics as an effective means to tackle the various factors that can inhibit the growth of the transport sector becomes inevitable. In essence, transport economics is a mechanism or tool that can be used to ensure the efficient use of different modes of transport so as to have better advantage from transportation and to strengthen the economy of a nation at local, regional, national and international levels. In the world today, the transport sector remains the largest employer of labour as well as the largest industrial sector in the world, yet there are various problems that the transport industries and the transport consumers encounter during transport operations such as: high cost of freight transportation, rise and fall of air transport fares, keen competition and struggle to survive among transport industries of the same mode, high cost of aircraft fuel, undue cargo delay at seaport, undue passenger queue and delay at airport, bus stop and train station, high cost of running transport industry, to mention but few. However, it is noteworthy that transport economics is that branch of economics that provides strategic solution to these problems. In order to gain maximum benefits from the transport sector and its operations, transport economics provide optimal economic management techniques to transport operations, organizational decision making, freight and passenger transportation, scientific organization of labour and wages, economic methods for measuring expenditures and economic impact or results in transport operation, etc. to the operation of all transport modes. These include rail transport, air transport, maritime transport, river transport, road transport and pipelines transport. Transport economics is the area of economic knowledge designed to improve transportation. Transport economics experts develop scientific transport recommendations that can be extensively used to solve important transport problems and also help to relieve the transport system or sector of excessive work with little impact. Importance of Transport Economics and Skills
  1. Transport economics experts acquire the ability to collect, analyze, organize and critically evaluate information pertaining to the transport industry.
  2. Experts in transport economics also acquire the ability to identify and solve transport issues through creative thinking.
  3. Transport economics experts are trained to evaluate economic policies that affect the transport sector.
  4. Transport economics helps to understand political barriers that can inhibit transport operations.
  5. Transport economics also contribute to economic development of a nation through job creation.
  6. Transport economics makes economic activities possible through the efficient use of transport and also serves as a branch of economic knowledge to boost transport operations.
  7. Transport economics can be used to support full multimodal transport operations and to also enhance transport capital development projects such as ports, rail track network, railway stations, among others.
  8. Transport economics experts are equipped with training, skills and experience which enable them to identify the best measures to achieve certain transport goals or targets.
  9. Transport economics ensures that the comprehensive benefits of transport investment accrues to all transport users rather than only direct users which has been the common practice in some transport sectors with a limited focus that ignores many potential benefits for transport users or transport service consumers at large.
  10. It is important to stress that transport economics as a branch of knowledge in the field of economics is also designed to provide transport support to other economic branches of knowledge like Industrial Economics, Agricultural Economics, Health Economics, Labour Economics, etc. Hence the saying, ‘The thumb is a little finger that touches the other fingers’. Indeed, transport economics is a thumb that touches other areas of economic knowledge for efficiency.
  11. Transport economics unit in any organization may also be concerned with providing reliable measures supported by quality data gathered to provide a sound basis for decision-making.
  12. Transport economics unit can also undertake the task of combining and comparing results from different economic evaluation and estimation techniques so as to use as a tool for proper transport operation planning and management.
  13. Transport economics unit can be saddled with the responsibility of conducting economic analysis of transport impacts and cost benefits assessment from types of investments made on transportation as well as measuring the effects on transport users.
In conclusion, transport infrastructure and transport providers are two key important factors for the transport sector to function. However, due to the increase in demand for transport services, there is also an increase in problems associated with transport services such as congestion, pollution, road accident, rail collision, rail derailment, cargo delay, etc. Therefore, the need to understand and to satisfy the high demand for transport services while reducing the expenditures and its associated risks to the barest minimum makes transport economics to remain most crucial.    

Monorail and Its Unique Features

Related image Source: picssr.com There are different modes of transport viz: Rail transportation, Sea Transportation, Air transportation, Road transportation and Pipeline transportation. However, in road transportation we have three (3) transport systems which are Road transport system, Rail transport system and monorail transport system, in all of these transport modes and systems, monorail is the most unpopular overland transport in developing countries. The Characteristic of Monorail Monorail is normally elevated above traffic, above congestion, above pedestrian and above vehicles. In fact, its grade is separated from surface traffic of all kinds, cars, trucks, trains, people, bicycle, motorcycle and so on. So that monorail can run without any interference from other means of transport thereby, improving traffic flow and reducing the accident rate. These are part of the uniqueness of monorail. Monorail the Safest Transport System In addition, monorail is the safest transport system because of its grade separation. It cannot for any reason whatsoever collide with cars or other vehicles or run over people or bicycles. In fact, people can ride bike or walk without having to look out for on coming vehicles or train as the case may be for any pedestrian who intends to cross the road or railway track. Monorail actually wraps around single ‘rail’ and it cannot derail like I said. Indeed, it is the safest transport for now in the world. It has a low accident rate when you compare it to other transport modes. For instance, the first fatal monorail accident occurred on the 5th of July, 2009, at Walt Disney World in Florida. In fact, it is first fatal accident ever happened in the 38 year history of the monorail system. You can imagine it yourself the number of accidents that might occurred in other modes of transport in 38 years. Therefore, my earlier assertion that monorail is the safest transport system is not a gain saying but a stark truth. No Noise Pollution in Monorail Transport More so, monorail does not make any noise on motion unlike cars, articulated vehicles (trailers), buses, air crafts and so on. In fact, it is the most quiet overland transport. It does not produce any harmful noise like that of automobiles or jet airplanes in an environment. Do you know that the noise produced by vehicles and air crafts can be annoying or disturbing a man in his environment? But monorail transport system does not produce such undesirable noise. It is environmental friendly. Monorail uses Electricity not Fuel. It is also important to let you know that monorail is electrically powered therefore; a standby power supply is usually made available for its operations. Since it is powered by electricity it does not pollute our environments as we have in road transport and air craft. Hence, it supports the green environment program. However, monorail does not take a wide space as any one may think; its line can be placed in the street within a space of 4 or 5 feet Column. Monorail a Viable Public Transport However, monorail has the capability to move large number of goods and people far more than what a luxurious bus can carry at once without interfering with any other land transport. Indeed, it is a good form of macro transportation. For instance, Walt Disney World monorail transport system in Florida, has one of the highest ridership in the world, it offers service to over 100,000 passengers in each day operations. Nonetheless, the use of monorail as public transport system in urban cities makes the most economical sense of all over land transport. Increasing its usage is a better means of contributing to healthier environment as well as reducing road accidents and rail collision.

Road Accident: A Universal Phenomenon

Car Accident : Stock Photo A car accident scene involving a drunk driver. Road accident is a major contributing factor to the number of daily deaths in the world; virtually every day, people die in road accidents. The importance of road transport to humanity cannot be overemphasized yet the number of deaths resulting from road accidents is undoubtedly worrisome. Painful enough, most of these accidents are preventable; therefore, the need to be more sensitive to enforcing road safety policies must be ascertained without compromise by all the agencies concerned. The road safety agencies in different countries should embark on ‘Operation Reduce All Preventable Road Accidents’. I believe that if all these preventable accidents can be reduced by half it would go a long way in reducing the number of deaths resulting from road accidents. More so, to reduce road accidents, drivers’ behaviour while using the road must be modified. If we sincerely desire to reduce the road accidents on our public roads, the need to focus on the driver’s behaviour becomes inevitable. One of the reasons among others for increase in vehicle collision is the bad behaviour of some drivers or motorists. Therefore, one of the ways to minimize the number of vehicles colliding on public roads is to focus on drivers’ behaviour. We must ensure that they drive in a safe manner; in fact, safety must be their top concern and number one priority when using the road and they must ensure that their vehicles are properly maintained. However, below are the accidents recorded around the world for the year 2016, 2017 and 2018 respectively. 2016  February 6 – Nepal – Pasang Lhamu bus crash. A passenger bus fell off the Keurini cliff, below the road, into a ravine. Eleven people were killed and twelve others were injured.  February 18 – Ghana – Bus collision in February 2016, Ghana. Head-on collision between a bus and a truck, 53 killed and at least 23 injured.  March 20 – Spain – Erasmus bus crash, Valencia. A Tata Hispano passenger bus carrying Erasmus students from several countries home from the Fallas Festival in Valencia collided with a car on the Autovía A-7 motorway, near the town of Freginals. Thirteen foreign female students were killed.  May 8 – Afghanistan – May 2016 Afghanistan road crash, Moqor district, Ghazni province. Two buses collided with a fuel tanker, killing 73 and injuring 50 more.  June 7 – United States – In the Kalamazoo bicycle crash, a pickup truck crashed into a group of cyclists killing five.  July 19 – Taiwan – 2016 Taoyuan bus fire, Taoyuan. A tour bus caught fire, killing 24 Chinese tourists, a Taiwanese tour guide, and the driver.  August 15 – Nepal – 2016 Nepal bus crashes, Birtadeurali, Kavrepalanchok District and Siddheshwar, Baitadi District. Two separate bus crashes in Nepal led to the death of 30 people, with 52 injured.  September 3 – Afghanistan – September 2016 Afghanistan road crash, Zabul Province. A bus collided with a fuel tanker; 38 people were killed and 28 were injured.  October 23 – United States – 2016 Interstate 10 tour bus crash, California. A tour bus collided with the back of a semi-trailer truck, killing 13 while 31 others were injured.  November 21 – United States – 2016 Chattanooga school bus crash, Chattanooga, Tennessee. An elementary school bus carrying dozens of students crashed, killing 6 students and injuring 23 others. 2017  January 21 – Italy – 2017 Verona bus crash, Verona. A bus carrying school from Hungary crashed and caught fire on the A4 near Verona a few minutes after midnight. 17 people were killed and 25 others were injured.  February 20 – Philippines – 2017 Tanay bus accident, Tanay, Rizal. A tourist bus carrying more than 50 passengers crashed on a curved road after the vehicle apparently lost control and hit an electric post in Barangay Sampaloc in Tanay, Rizal. 15 people were killed and 40 were injured.  April 18 – Philippines – 2017 Nueva Ecija bus accident, Carranglan, Nueva Ecija. A minibus carrying 77 passengers lost its brakes and fell off a ravine in Carranglan, Nueva Ecija. It is recorded as one of the deadliest road accidents in recent Philippine history, leaving 31 dead and 46 injured.  June 25 – Pakistan – 2017 Bahawalpur explosion, near Ahmedpur East, Bahawalpur – 219 people were killed and at least 34 injured when a tanker truck overturned and people rushed towards it to collect the leaking petrol.  December 14 – France – Perpignan crash, Perpignan. A train crashed into a school bus on a level crossing between Millas and Saint-Féliu-d'Amont in the Arrondissement of Perpignan. Six pupils were killed and twenty-four others were injured.  December 31 – Kenya – At least 36 people perished when a truck collided head-on with a bus near Migaa. 2018  January 2 – Peru – 2018 Pasamayo bus crash. A coach bus plunged off a cliff on a coastal road in Peru, killing 48 people.  January 18 – Kazakhstan – 2018 Aktobe bus fire, Aktobe. A bus carrying Uzbek migrant workers caught fire in Kazakhstan's Aktobe region, killing fifty-two people.  February 10 – Hong Kong – 2018 Hong Kong bus accident. A bus carrying spectators and workers from horse races overturned in the New Territories area. 18 people were killed and 65 were injured.  April 6 – Canada – Humboldt Broncos bus crash. Sixteen people were killed and 13 others injured when a semi-trailer truck and a bus carrying a junior ice hockey team collided near Tisdale, Saskatchewan, Canada.  April 22 – North Korea – 2018 North Korea bus accident. A bus in North Hwanghae Province, North Korea, transporting Chinese tourists fell off a bridge, killing 32 Chinese tourists and 4 North Koreans.  May 25 – Uganda – 2018 Kiryandongo bus accident. A bus in Kiryandongo District collided with a tractor followed by a truck carrying beer, killing at least twenty-two people.  October 6 – United States – A stretch limousine failed to stop at an intersection near Schoharie, New York, killing all 18 people in the vehicle and two pedestrians.  October 10 – Kenya – At least 51 people died when a bus en route from Nairobi to Kisumu went off the road and plunged into a ravine. Source: Wikipedia Having gone through the above list of fatal road accidents around the world, one may be tempted to say that road transportation is a necessary evil. It is important to note that road transportation is not evil neither is it designed to cause evil; it is the human factor that is responsible for most road accidents. And since it is obvious that road transport is inevitable in our daily activities, in fact, it is paramount in  virtually every aspect of the economic, social and political activities of a nation as it is a key instrument to promoting, developing, and shaping the national economy. Therefore, the need to reduce unwanted and preventable road accidents must be the equal task of all of us.

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