Global Transport and Logistics

Transport and logistics from around the world.

Author: peterowinje (Page 1 of 11)

10 Safety Tips for Road Users

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Picture credited to: Alberta Motor Association (AMA)
Virtually everyone is a road user; everyone depends on road transport for one reason or the other. Indeed, it is an indispensable part of our daily activities which
also has a high element of risk. This explains why safety consciousness is very
important for all road users.
Road safety advice refers to suggestions that can keep road users safe from danger while using the road. The tips are as follows:
1. Do not be too much in a hurry to a place, programme, or an event while using the road. Why? It is better to arrive late than to be a late man.
2. Never use the road as if it belongs to you alone. We are all road users, so put others into consideration while making use of the road.
3. Never drive recklessly on the road. If you do, it may be a short cut to your early grave.
4. Overspeeding may excite you but it kills in a split second.
5. The best way to save lives while driving is to obey traffic rules.
6. If you drink don’t drive, and if you drive don’t drink. But if you prove otherwise, you’re the most dangerous person and a big fool. Why a fool? You are not advised not to drink or drive, you are only advised not to drive when you drink because alcohol can impair your driving ability; consequently making the road unsafe for all road users. So it is only a fool that is aware of danger but still refuses to ‘keep out’.
7. You may leave home early but unforeseen circumstances may cause unnecessary delay on the road; yet, do not overspeed. It is better to lose minutes or hours than to lose lives.
8. Your driving license is not enough without your determination to drive safe always; this is a key to road safety.
9. Don’t forget to use your seat belt. Observation reveals that death occurs as a result of occupants hitting their head against the windshield or being thrown out of the vehicle or banging against vehicle parts. More so, the seat belt also helps to protect a pregnant woman and her unborn child in a car. Nevertheless, pregnant women are advised to wear the lap belt low, in such a way that it pulls downward on the pelvic bones. In other words, they should not wear it against their abdomen. In short, the seat belt still remains the number one vehicle safety device.
10. Nonetheless, it does not hurt to obey traffic rules or yield to road safety tips or advice.
Finally, it is your civic duty as a motorist or road user to make the road safe for all.

Why Air Transport is Safer than Other Modes of Transport

Side of passenger jet airplane - easy to cut out. : Stock Photo

Out of other modes of transport, air transport remains the number one choice of many travellers who would like to move from one nation to another or travel across continents. Its unique quality in providing safe and very fast transport services to thousands of people daily, mostly the businessmen, by linking them to where there are business opportunities in different locations around the world makes it the most preferable transport mode for international travellers. For instance, in 2016, globally air transport accounted for 3.6 billion passengers which is 48 per cent of the world population. (Source: NCAA Profile Oct. 2014-Oct. 2016)
The role of the aviation industry in the economy of any nation cannot be overemphasized; its enormous contributions to both domestic and international
trade have led to the economic growth and development of many nations in the
world. Besides, it is also a notable source of employment as the aviation industry
includes all airlines, airports, air navigation and other important ground services
that make air transport operations possible; they are all sources of notable employment for unemployed people.
Furthermore, air transport plays an important role in the global economy by enhancing world productivity, and providing links to expand different markets for
companies to operate. These important roles, among others, make air transport
indispensable. Hence, the need to make air transport safer is the fundamental duty of aviation industries and the International Civil Aviation Organization.
However, there are three distinctive factors why air transport is safer than other modes of transport. These factors are easily noticeable in the daily operations of all aviation industries in the world. They are:
1. Safety;
2. Security; and
3. Enforcement of Regulations and Procedures.

Safety
In the aviation industry safety policy is inevitable. It is the most important issue; the beginning and the end of its daily operations. In fact, meeting the flyer’s expectation is a top priority in the aviation industry. Safety in aviation refers to a
state in which risks associated with air transport are reduced to zero or to the barest minimum. There is no gainsaying that all activities in the aviation industry are embedded in safety policy, no aviation industry will like to take the issue of safety for granted.
For instance, on 18 July 2012, the African Ministerial Meeting on Aviation Safety held in Abuja, Nigeria, was focused on air transport safety, where the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) encouraged all aviation ministers in Africa to endorse and adopt the Africa Strategic Improvement Action Plan. This plan is meant to improve safety in aviation industries in all African countries. (Source: https://www.icao.int/Newsroom/Pages/strategic-action-plan-to-improve-aviation-safety-in-Africa.aspx)

Therefore, there is no continent in any part of the world where air transport safety should be taken for granted. It is a top priority in the aviation industry and till now, no other transport mode does it better than the aviation industry.
Furthermore, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has come up
with programmes to maintain regular safety operations in air transport, two of
such are Aviation Safety Implementation Assistance Partnership (ASIAP) which
was established in February 2015 and Safety Fund (SAFE).
The Aviation Safety Assistance Partnership (ASIAP) was created purposely to provide reasonable assistance to different nations in sharing safety information,
giving attention to the most important needs; jointly work with other nations in
assistance activities; support a resource mobilization strategy and agree on outcome indicators. In simple language, ASIAP aims to ensure the safety of operations in the aviation industry.
Safety Fund (SAFE): Is another safety programme under ICAO for aviation industries. SAFE’s priority is to improve air transport safety around the world through gathered fund. There are nations mostly in the developing countries that
have no financial capability to tackle serious safety inadequacies in their aviation
industries. This justifies the reason SAFE was established so as to rescue aviation
industries in such countries through donors and voluntary contributions from different nations.
By and large, air transport safety is a top priority in the aviation industry, therefore, all airlines, aircraft manufacturers, ICAO, IATA and government
regulators in different countries are all in collaboration to avoid any safety
problem that may jeopardize an aircraft’s ability to fly safely.

Security

Adequate security is another notable factor that makes air transport safer than other modes of transport. In aviation, security is the set of measures and resources that are used to prevent any malicious act such as terrorism, robbery, among others, against the smooth operation of air transport. In other words, security in aviation refers to all acts of illicit obstruction against civil aviation. One of the functions of ICAO is to prevent or reduce all unwanted acts of unlawful interference against civil aviation. However, there is a form referred to as Official Report on Acts of Unlawful Interference for all ICAO member states in different languages and as at November 2017, ICAO had 192 members. (Source: Wikipedia)
The form is meant to report any form of attack on air transport operations. This shows how important the issue of security is in the aviation industry. Due to the importance of the aviation industry to a nation’s economy, governments in different countries are also in collaboration with aviation industries to provide adequate security measures for the industry. For instance, the US government established Department of Homeland Security while the department also established Transport Security Authority (TSA) to manage security measures in the aviation industry.
Security against liquids, aerosol and gel materials: Another area of security concern that makes air travel safer is the area where flyers are checked to make sure they are not carrying liquid explosive substances or illegal materials into theaircraft. The use  of liquid explosives is now a notable aviation security concern, hence, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has come up with guidelines on security controls for Liquids, Aerosol and Gels (LAGs).
Liquids are non-solid materials and aerosol is a substance usually kept under pressure in a container, which can be released or dispensed as a spray when a button is pressed while gel is also a substance that often looks like jelly. However,
in 2006, a terrorist plot was discovered when the terrorist tried to smuggle an improvised explosive device into an aircraft by carrying dangerous substances that looks like ordinary LAGs i.e. liquid, aerosol and gel. This explains why ICAO in October 2008 provided guidance material to ensure that the security control guidelines for LAGs are implemented harmoniously in all aviation industries in the world. Indeed, security is a serious matter in air transport.
Cyber-security: This is another issue of concern for all relevant stakeholders in the aviation industry. Vital information in the aviation industry needs to be highly protected from any unlawful interference, so as to make air transport safer. However, civil aviation cyber-security refers to measures taken to protect civil aviation information storage in electronic systems against any unauthorized
access or attack by cyber-criminals.
As a matter of fact, civil aviation relies so much on information and
communications technology (ICT) systems for efficient safety and smooth air transport operations, hence, the need to protect confidential information against cyber threats calls for adequate security for the ICT systems in aviation. Furthermore, after the ugly incident of September 11 2001 in the US, all stakeholders in aviation industries have been able to reach an agreement to put strong security measures in place that apparently frustrated the unlawful acts from criminal actors that would have made another big noise in the world.
Nevertheless, in 2013, an Industry High-level Group (IHLG) was created by stakeholders in the aviation industry which include International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO); the Airports Council International (ACI); the Civil Air Navigation Services Organization (CANSO); the International Air Transport Association (IATA) as well as the International Coordinating Council of Aerospace
Industries Association (ICCAIA). It was created purposely as a tool to work for the benefit of all stakeholders on important matters or signify issues of common interest to aviation industries such as aviation cyber-security. The Industry High- level Group (IHLG) is expected to protect civil aviation from any form of cyber threats. Truly speaking, in all modes of transport, air transport is second to none in the area of safety and security.

Enforcement of Regulations and Procedures

The strong enforcement of regulations and procedures by airport authorities is one of the reasons why air transport is safer for flyers. The enforcement of improved regulations and smart procedures, to as well align with ICAO standards, is a notable way for an airline’s growth and sustainability.
It is my personal opinion that, if airports are going to be well positioned to play a
significant role in supporting the aviation sector in the area of safety and security,
a strong enforcement of safety regulations and procedures must not be undermined. The inspection of aircraft worthiness; the pilots, engineers, cabin
staff and crew’s fitness in compliance with relevant regulations and procedures
mostly in respect of alcohol consumption, drug use, crew rest time, carrying out
pre-flight inspection procedure by using the prescribed checklist; entering of defects in the aircraft technical logbook, maintenance with approved techniques,
methods and practice, regularities in maintenance procedures and records, flying
aircrafts before expiration of flight clearance and so on, must not be compromised. Otherwise, increase in the violation of civil aviation regulations and procedures by airlines, pilots, engineers and cabin crew that can jeopardize the safety and smooth operation of air transport will be inevitable.
However, air transport authorities understand the high risk involved in the violation of air transport regulations and procedures. Hence, to ensure compliance, violators can be sanctioned and such sanctions could be strict warning, suspension, fines, outright cancellation of airworthiness certificates, withdrawal of license as well as grounding of aircrafts among others. For instance, the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) in Australia sanctioned an individual pilot and airline for violating civil aviation regulations and procedures.
The following are examples of recent enforcement decisions by CASA in Australia:
On 12 July 2018, ‘Investigations conducted by CASA revealed that the pilot had knowingly operated an aircraft with major damage following a landing incident. This conduct was in contravention of multiple provisions of the Civil Aviation Act including 20A and 20AA(4). The pilot’s conduct was considered to be more serious in this instance because this was the second recent occasion in which he had been
found deliberately flying an aircraft without satisfying applicable airworthiness requirements. Being satisfied that the pilot had failed to properly discharge his duties as a pilot and was not therefore, a fit and proper person to be the holder of a PPL, a delegate of CASA decided to cancel the pilot’s PPL pursuant to regulation 269 of the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988.’
Note: PPL means Private Pilot License-Aeroplane. This means the license to operate private aircraft was cancelled.
On 21 March 2018, ‘Investigations conducted by CASA in the wake of a fatal accident in 2017 revealed that the conduct of the accident flight by the pilot involved significant and dangerous non-compliance with the aviation legislation including conduct regarded as reckless and/or negligent, contrary to section 20A of the Civil Aviation Act and regulation 282(4) of the Civil Aviation Regulations. Being satisfied that the pilot had failed to properly discharge his duties as a pilot and was not, therefore, a fit and proper person to be the holder of a PPL or a CPL, a delegate of CASA decided to cancel the pilot’s PPL and CPL pursuant to regulation 269 of the Civil Aviation Regulations.’
Note: PPL means Private Pilot License-Aeroplane CPL means Commercial Pilot License-Aeroplane. It means the pilot’s 2 licenses to operate both private and commercial aircrafts were cancelled.
On 30 June 2017, ‘An investigation into the circumstances surrounding a fatal crash of an R44 helicopter near Cape Tribulation in North Queensland in April 2016 revealed that the pilot had contravened a number of provisions of the aviation legislation. This included flying after dark without an appropriate rating, flying without a valid medical certificate and engaging in reckless operation of an aircraft. The pilot’s PPL-H was cancelled under the provisions of sub regulation 269(1) of the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988.’
Note: PPL-H means Private Pilot License-Helicopter. It means its license to operate private helicopter was cancelled.
Source: https://www.casa.gov.au/enforcement-action/standard-page/decisions-
suspensions-and-cancellations
Furthermore, my observation reveals that, failure of airport authorities to enforce regulations and procedures that will ensure high rate of compliance of all parties concerned in air transport industries may also increase the flyers’ right abuse. It is worthy to note that many flyers have suffered their worst right abuse in the hands of airline operators probably due to the lack of regulation of air transport industries on the issue of consumer protection or poor enforcement of such regulations, for  instance, British Airways and Virgin Atlantic. These two airlines cheated their passengers worldwide between 2004 and 2006 with hidden charges. When it was discovered by US regulatory authorities, the airlines refunded all its cheated passengers in the US and Europe but refused to refund the over 300,000 Nigerian passengers who suffered the same hidden charges on the grounds that Nigeria had no consumer protection law that they violated. In fact, they argued that even Aviation Act 2006 was not in place. (Source: NCAA Regulatory Profile)
Having gone through the above paragraphs, I hope you will also agree with me that air transport is safer than other modes of transport.

International Road Transportation

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If one examines the social and economic impact of road transportation in any given nation, it will not be an over statement to say it’s a notable factor for national development. This is so because of its great flexibility that leads to enormous contribution to the rapid, social and economic development in our rural communities and urban areas.

However, using land transportation to increase trade flows across borders of neighboring countries has a lot of benefits for such countries. Why? I guess you may want to ask, firstly, trade as it were has great potential to create wealth; to reduce poverty and to sustain economic growth, while land transportation on the other hand plays a key role in production and distribution of goods and services as well as, creating employment for many people. This means road transportation as it were, plays both direct and indirect roles to reduce poverty and to sustain economic growth.

So, due to the enormous contribution of road transportation to national development of any nation in the world, hence, the need for international road transportation between neighboring countries to boost international trade on domestically produced products of good quality becomes inevitable.

Governments of these neighboring countries realizing the important need to take the advantage of their proximity to complement each other with their peculiar products so as to boost their economy. The issue of economic growth must be a matter of concern to any serious government. Having realized this fact hence, the comparative means of transport to achieve this goal is international road transportation.

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So, what is International Road Transportation?

International road transport refers to land transportation between two or more neighboring countries. It can also be seen as trans-border road transportation. In other words, it is the movement of people and goods among countries that share common borders through roads agreed by the neighboring countries for their international transportation. Better still, it is the movement of goods and people by road transport across national boundaries of neighboring countries.

However, all vehicles used in roads territorial boundaries are expected to meet the requirements of traffic rule and standards set by neighboring countries. Such agreement may include the size, the weight, type of goods allowed, width of the vehicle, joint acknowledgement of driver licenses etc

Why is it the Most Preferable Mode among Neighboring Countries?

There are reasons why land transportation is judged as the best mode for international transportation among other modes, here are the reasons:

For instance, Sea transport is cheaper but very slow when you compare it to road transport while air transport is very fast but much costlier than road transport, likewise, rail is also cheaper than road transport but not as flexible as road transport that has the quality to offer door-to-door services therefore, only the road transport has comparative advantage over other modes although, it’s not cheaper than sea and rail transport yet it’s not as cost as air transport.

Also time sensitivity is another notable advantage of road transport over other modes of transportation. Even though it is not as fast as air transport yet because of its flexibility it’s comparatively faster than other transport modes. For instance, sea and air transport operations end in their ports while rail transport also ends in railway station hence, clearing of goods, loading, off loading and other related activities at the ports and railway station delay the movement of goods to the last destination and none of them has the quality to provide door-to-door transport services like road transport.

Another uniqueness of road transport is that, it is the only transport mode that can complement other modes of transport.

Examples of Countries that Share Common Road across-border

There are countries with bilateral agreement to share common road that links 2 or more countries together, here are few examples:

  1. China and Mongolia
  2. Mongolia and Russian Federation
  3. Mongolia and Republic of Kazakhstan

Source: Ministry of Road and Transport Mongolia

  1. China and Kazakhstan
  2. China and Uzbekistan
  3. China and Kyrgyzstan
  4. China and Tajikistan
  5. China and Russia
  6. China; Pakistan; Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan
  7. China, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan

Source: The introduction of International Road Transport Agreements of China: Ministry of Transport of China, Mar. 25, 2015.

Many neighboring nations realizing the need to complement each other well with their peculiar products and also to enhance economic cooperation among themselves, these among other reasons justify the need for cheap, fast and timely or ‘just in time’ transport services to move their quality domestic products across borders therefore; the most suitable solution to achieve this is international road transport.

It is interesting to note that no government of any nation in the world has sufficiently developed to offer employment to all its unemployed citizens; this explains why we have high number of unemployed youths in different parts of the world especially in developing countries.

So, the issue of unemployment is a universal problem, therefore, international road transportation is a notable solution to unemployment because it will definitely aid production and international trade thereby, providing both direct and indirect job opportunities to many citizens.

10 Top Benefits of Road Transport in Rural Area

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There are several people around the world living in rural communities where half of them are peasant farmers. Such people mostly in Africa rely most on oldest form of transportation which is walking or trekking, this form of transport limit them to access social amenities while also increase the level of poverty among them, these among others are the likely problems people living in rural areas are likely to face.

To this end, introduction of road transport system in rural areas is a major solution for a sustained socio-economic development in such communities; more so, it’s an important means to enhance national integration. However, here are the benefits of providing road transport in rural areas:

  1. It increases access to market centers, wherefore, encouraging commercial farming activities.
  2. Access to several rural areas is a sign of improved road network resulting into higher availability of farm inputs at a low price.
  3. It brings about employment opportunities.
  4. It increases access to social amenities.
  5. It plays a vital role of promoting development in rural communities.
  6. It promotes national integration.
  7. It is a tool for poverty alleviation.
  8. It provides continuity in moving people and agric produce from rural communities to urban areas.
  9. It provides the farmer the opportunity to quickly move perishable commodities to the market centers or places where they are needed.
  10. It promotes sense of belonging.

Nevertheless, one of the major cause of poverty in rural communities is lack of access to good road transportation, therefore, having read this article, it is understandable that, access to good road transportation is a notable factor to develop rural communities.

Road Transportation: A Desirable and Indispensable Element for other Transport Modes

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The important of transportation at large for economic development of any nation cannot be over emphasized. Without transportation it is difficult if not impossible for a nation to develop, in fact, good transport infrastructures and road network that lead to transport efficiency is a sign of a developed nation. However, as important as all modes of transport are to the economic development of a nation, it is important to note that road transportation still plays an important or unique role to other modes of transportation.

Road Transportation and Its Uniqueness

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Transport modes provide people the opportunity to choose a suitable mode for their journey or products, but road transportation does not only provides opportunity for people to choose rather with good road network, it also complements other modes of transport. This makes it the only indispensable mode to other modes of transport, no any other modes has the keen competitive quality and capacity to perform this significant role of road transport, as to provide extra mile to complete any journey made by other modes of transport.

For instance, traveling by air begins and ends at air port; traveling by sea begins and ends at sea port; traveling by railway begin and ends at railway station and while journey on inland waterway begins and ends at jetty or water wharf. However, most of these transport modes lack the capacity to provide door-to-door transport services to passengers hence, road transport provides this extra-mile transport needs to complement each mode, this shows the uniqueness of road transportation.

Truly speaking road transport plays vital roles by facilitating movement of people and materials, helping trade and commerce, linking industry and agriculture to market places and open-up of new settlements and more importantly, providing transport needs or services to complement other modes of transport.

Nevertheless, as it is noted earlier, good road network is needed to enhance growth and development, therefore, no successful enterprise or developed nation without efficient use of road transportation.

5 Top Benefits of Security in Overland Transportation

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Source: TexasMonthly

There’s no doubt to say transportation modes on land are playing key role in complementing other modes of transport such as air transport, sea/water transport or pipeline transport and as well as boosting the economic growth of any given nation.Overland transport modes are majorly road and railway transportations and both are fully operated on land and in case of emergency, they play important role in mass evacuation of people and goods. For instance, if there’s natural disaster or threat in an area overland transport can be used for rapid mass evacuation of people and goods.

However, because of the importance of this two land transportation modes to a nation and their various users, there’s need for government and freight industries to improve the freight security and efficiency of overland transports in many ways such as road transport, rail transport, traffic management, track maintenance, mobility, level crossing safety measures to mention but a few.

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One of the major problems among others facing rail and road transportation is security, this is because the two transport modes are commonly used as tools by criminals to carry out their evil works. This explains the need for innovative security services relating to both road and rail transportation that will enable their operations safer for various users. It’s important to know that the two transport modes are the major easy target for criminals like kidnapper, terrorist, armed robbers and so on.

Due to increase in this menace the Transport Security Administration (TSA) has warned both transport and freight industries against terrorists hijacking trucks and driving to the crowd to cause weapon of mass destruction.

For instance, The Transport Security Administration reveals that within 3 years vehicles were hijacked and used in 17 times to kill 173 people while 665 people were injured.

Likewise, in Nice, France, Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhel drove a tractor trailer into a gathering celebrating Bastille Day, killing 87 people including children and injured more than 400 people.

In March 29, 2010, there was “A double suicide bombing at Lubyanka and Park kultury stations of the Moscow Metro killing 40 people while 102 people were injured.” Source: Wikipedia.

Likewise, on March 22, 2016, in Belgium, there was suicide bomb attack at Maalbeek metro station in Brussels which caused the death of 20 people and 200 people were injured. Source: Wikipedia.

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Having read the above data you will note that overland transport modes are commonly used by the criminals hence, the need to increase focus on land transportation security such as surveillance on road and railways becomes inevitable.

Another reason for physical security in overland transportations is that they are mostly used for illegal transactions across the borders such as illegal drugs, weapons, piracy, illegal immigration and so on.Bus and rail terminals are locations where passengers and freights are assembled in large number for immediate transportation and at such places safety and physical and freight security should be a major concern for transport and freight industries. Why? It’s because stealing or thefts is one of the common problems at terminal and it may also be seen as potential target for terrorist attack.

Strong security in overland transportation has huge benefits to a nation such benefits include the followings:

  1. It will truncate the unwanted transportation operations of illegal weapons and suspicious people that may cause insecurity or any other form of security threats thereby, boosting the commerce and industrial activities.
  2. It will also reduce stealing or theft at terminal as well as reducing diversion of goods thereby, eliminating the direct losses thereafter.
  3. It will also reduce illegal transportation of all sorts of contraband goods such as counterfeit products, narcotics or marijuana, weapons, hazardous materials e.g. chemical that can cause death if inhaled, to mention but a few.
  4. It makes it difficult if not impossible for people to evade taxes and duties.
  5. It will also reduce the illegal immigration of people into the country.

To this end, it is important to note that weak security in overland transport system can lead to overall national insecurity. Individual group or person may be motivated to attack any of these overland transports thereby terrorizing and injuring innocent users as well as causing disruption in economic growth.

These among others explain why we must not afford to neglect overland transport security, strong security out-fit must be put in place in both bus and railway terminals and better still, adequate passenger and freight security is a sign of qualitative transport services to the public.

 

 

The World 10 Most Notable Long Distance Trips by Rail

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Over decades, rail transport has been playing a key role in building nations by carrying thousands of goods and people across a particular nation on trips of business, discovery and pleasure, as well as opening up the vast open spaces, thereby creating development and market opportunities. To this end, the following are the most notable rail distances in the world:
1. A rail trip between Moscow in Russia and Pyongyang in North Korea is the longest distance rail trip in the world with a space of 10,267 km. The usual time always planned for the trip is 206 hours. This means it takes a train not less than 8 days to complete the journey.
2. A rail trip from Moscow in Russia to Vladivostok in Russia is the 2nd longest rail  trip in the world with a space of 9, 289 km, the normal hours for the trip is 144 hours. In order words, it takes a train 6 days to complete the journey.
3. Moscow in Russia to Beijing in China through Harbin railroad is the 3rd longest rail trip in the world with a space of 8,984 rail km; the journey will take 6 days or 145 hours.
4. Moscow in Russian to Beijing in China through Ulaanbaatar railroad is a distance of 7,826 km and it will take 127 hours or 5 days and few hours to complete the journey.
5. The rail distance between Moscow and Tommot in Russia is 7,318 km and a train is expected to use 140 hours or 5 days and few hours to complete the journey.
6. From Kashgar to Yingtan in China is a rail distance of 5,166 km, and itwill take 72 hours 39 minutes or 3 days and few hours for a train to complete the journey.
7. A trip between Guangzhou to Lhasa in China is about 4,980 km; such a trip will take 53 hours or 2 days and some hours for a train to complete the journey.
8. Shanghai to Yining in China is 4,742 km and its normal travel time for a train to complete the journey on the route is 55 hours 43 minutes or 2days and few hours.
9. Guangzhou to Urumqi in China is a 2 days journey of 4,684 km distance; a train is expected to spend 49 hours, 34 minutes.
10. From Toronto to Vancouver in Canada is 4,466 km railroad; such a trip will take a train 86 hours or better still 3 days and few hours.

10 Benefits of Long Distance Trips by Rail

Generally speaking, passengers’ attitudes have an influence in determining whether to choose rail transport for their long distance trips or not. The huge benefits of travelling a long distance by rail have heavily influenced the public perceptions in choosing the rail for their long distance trips. However, there arelist of benefits that both the passengers and the service providers will enjoy in long distance trips by rail. Here are the benefits:
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1. Long distance rail trips are cost efficient. For instance, what will cost a train to move several tons of goods on a single journey may cost nothing less than 10 trailers to move the same goods at a higher cost.
2. The origin and destination of travelling a long distance by air ends in the airport, but travelling a long distance by rail can take you to a desired city, town or village that is located along the rail road corridors.
3. Many air passengers who fail to use busy airline may end up waiting more than necessary for their flight and they may also have to pay higher fares. Passengers in long distance rail trips pay cheaper fares for their trips andthey embark on their trips without much delay.
4. Travelling a long distance by road may increase your trip time more than necessary, why? This is because your driver may want to take breaks for rest and meal and also, you may come across several check points; all of these significantly increase your trip time. These are not so in rail transportation. No several check points and the train does not need to stop for anyone to take meals.
5. At times, a driver on a long distance trip may deliberately decide not to take break for rest or meal in order to save time and money. This may result to an unnecessary stress, fatigue and other factors that may impair the ability to drive safely on the road, wherefore, putting his own life and the lives of other innocent people at risk. However, passengers on long distance rail trips travel without stress or danger to others; they move freely and safely. The passengers can eat and even sleep without any cause for alarm while the journey progresses.
6. The train can quickly make many intermediate stops without using much
fuel. This is not possible in air transport.
7. Railway stations are less expensive to build and also easy to operate when you compare it to airports.
8. A long distance rail links many markets together, thereby generating more economic revenues.
9. A long distance rail trip helps generate more revenues to the rail company and also enables the company to spend less when you compare it to short distance operations.
10. Train use fuel more efficiently than air and road transport, for instance, a train can use a gallon of fuel to move one ton worth of goods more than 400 miles, this is not possible with road transport, while air craft on its own burns almost half of its fuel in landings and take offs.

Long Distance Rail Trip and the Factors Determining Passengers’ Attitudinal Behavior

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The people’s attitudes and perceptions towards long distance trips by rail are important in determining potential passengers. Also, they are capable of creating
either positive or negative impact on rail transport. These days, mostly in Europe,railway transport companies provide both national and international long
distance transport services to their potential passengers. Therefore, traveling a
long distance by rail becomes unique and the attitudinal behavior of people toward long distance journeys by rail becomes a major factor in determining the sustainability of long distance journeys by rail and the prosperity of rail transport
companies engaging in long distance trips.
Without any element of doubt, long distance trips by rail and the rate at which
people use the train for their long distance trips are increasingly growing these days as more affordable mode to either of road or air transport. The value and the importance of long distance trips by rail transport cannot be overlooked; it connects different towns, villages and cities and many markets along the route together to produce greater revenue.
Despite the importance of long trip rail transport, it is important to know that the belief and the perception of the people can affect the demand for long distance
rail trips both positively and negatively. There are factors that can determine the
attitude of passengers toward long distance rail transport. Such factors are:
 Safety
 Accessibility
 Affordability
 Convenience
 Comfort
 security

Related imageSafety: This is one of the major factors that can affect the attitude of passengers. Potential passengers must be sure that they are safe from harm or danger when engaging in a long distance trip by train. They must have confidence that the service providers are conscious of their safety throughout the journey. You can
imagine what the attitude of passengers would be if the train they are traveling
on a distance trip is stuck down for two days in the middle of the journey, probably, in a thick forest where they are not close to any town or village. Such an experience will surely discourage passengers to travel by rail, especially during along distance trip.
Accessibility: It’s important to note that long distance rail trips provide access to many cities, towns, villages and market places. This will likely encourage people to
choose the train for their trips and more importantly, rail transport itself must be
easily accessible by potential passengers; people must find it possible to choose the train for their trips. If the rail transport is not easily accessible then it will not be attractive or possible for passengers to choose the train for their longer trips.
Affordability: The use of transport cannot be neglected either by individuals or
organizations. More importantly, nations can’t afford to neglect transport in its
economy. These explain why transport is important and why it must be easily affordable to everyone. Rail transport must be cost effective; people must be able to choose the train for their long distance trips without having serious problem to pay for it. If many people are unable to afford train transport for their needs due to high rate of transport fare, this may discourage many potential passengers.
However, it’s interesting to note that, till date, railway transport still provides
more avoidable service to the public when you compare it to other modes of
transport.
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Convenience: Rail transport companies must ensure that people choosing the train for their long  distance trips must be free from any form of stress. Transport companies must add features to the train that will make long distance trips luxurious. A train traveling on a long distance, probably for two days, is expected to have vital features that will reduce the burden of the passengers in such a long distance trip. It is also interesting to note that most trains used for distance
journeys have many features to make such long trips stress free.

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Comfort: For instance, a train on an international trip moving from Moscow in Russia to Pyongyang in North Korea will have to spend at least 206 hours to cover 10,267 kilometers. This means between Moscow and Pyongyang a train is
expected to spend not less than 8 days, wherefore, passengers in such a long
distance trip may feel worry, be upset and frighten during the journey. As a result
of this, the number of passengers on long distance trips may be reduced.
Therefore, every rail transport company must do everything possible to make
every long distance trip an enjoyable experience for all passengers on board. Rail
transport providers must ensure that passengers are content with regard to their
well-being throughout the journey. All passengers must enjoy all the comfort they
deserve; even their seats must be designed for comfort. A dissatisfied passenger may be dangerous. However, the railway transport companies should ensure that
their passengers are comfortable throughout all journeys.

Security: The fear of rap, terrorist attack, armed robbery and other forms of crime
may discourage people mostly female passengers from choosing the rail transport for their long distance trips. Therefore, measures must be taken by service providers to guard against any form of attack or crime during trips. Adequate
security must not be neglected to ensure that people are free from fear and
anxiety during their journeys.
Nevertheless, choosing rail transport for long distance journey is good; therefore
the rail transport service providers must continue to guide the belief and
perception of their passengers by providing them quality services that are free
from any form of danger or harm.

5 Notable Benefits of Highways

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Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:I 80_Eastshore_Fwy.jpg

A highway is the main public road that connects different cities, towns and at times, villages etc. together. It is a major and significant public road that is able and fit to carry fairly heavy traffic. Since automobile has gained popularity in the world today, the need for adequate and efficient transport system for promoting economic development is a notable fact that cannot be doubted. Substantial investments on road infrastructure developments by government at the different levels e.g. federal, state and local government are also frantic efforts to attracting investors that will promote the economy.
Highways have great benefits to industries, educational institutions, tourist centers, hospitals, to mention but few. It plays an indispensable role in the economy of both the developed and the developing countries of the world in making travels easier and faster. Hence, any problem that may affect smooth transport operations on highways may have greater negative impacts on the economy of a nation, at large. This and many other reasons explain why highways are important to a nation. However, below are the benefits of highways:
1. Good transport infrastructure, like highway network enhances transport system that reduces transportation costs and this, in turn, definitely reduces the production costs while it increases productivity and profitability of organizations.
2. Highway network also makes transportation schedules and deliveries more reliable and timely.
3. Highways also contribute immensely to social growth, relatives are able to visit their loved ones more often and it enhances good relationship between family and friends.
4. Highways can relatively reduce travel time to villages, cities and towns thereby encourage people to travel for business and trade.
5. Highways make journeys faster, comfortable and safer than usual while at the same time reduce fuel consumption.
Nevertheless, the designs, construction and regulations of the highways and the
vehicles used on them and the training of drivers and other road users may go a
long way in making our highways safer for all of us.

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