- It increases access to market centers, wherefore, encouraging commercial farming activities.
- Access to several rural areas is a sign of improved road network resulting into higher availability of farm inputs at a low price.
- It brings about employment opportunities.
- It increases access to social amenities.
- It plays a vital role of promoting development in rural communities.
- It promotes national integration.
- It is a tool for poverty alleviation.
- It provides continuity in moving people and agric produce from rural communities to urban areas.
- It provides the farmer the opportunity to quickly move perishable commodities to the market centers or places where they are needed.
- It promotes sense of belonging.
Author: peterowinje (Page 2 of 12)
There are several people around the world living in rural communities where half of them are peasant farmers. Such people mostly in Africa rely most on oldest form of transportation which is walking or trekking, this form of transport limit them to access social amenities while also increase the level of poverty among them, these among others are the likely problems people living in rural areas are likely to face. To this end, introduction of road transport system in rural areas is a major solution for a sustained socio-economic development in such communities; more so, it’s an important means to enhance national integration. However, here are the benefits of providing road transport in rural areas:
The important of transportation at large for economic development of any nation cannot be over emphasized. Without transportation it is difficult if not impossible for a nation to develop, in fact, good transport infrastructures and road network that lead to transport efficiency is a sign of a developed nation. However, as important as all modes of transport are to the economic development of a nation, it is important to note that road transportation still plays an important or unique role to other modes of transportation. Road Transportation and Its Uniqueness Transport modes provide people the opportunity to choose a suitable mode for their journey or products, but road transportation does not only provides opportunity for people to choose rather with good road network, it also complements other modes of transport. This makes it the only indispensable mode to other modes of transport, no any other modes has the keen competitive quality and capacity to perform this significant role of road transport, as to provide extra mile to complete any journey made by other modes of transport. For instance, traveling by air begins and ends at air port; traveling by sea begins and ends at sea port; traveling by railway begin and ends at railway station and while journey on inland waterway begins and ends at jetty or water wharf. However, most of these transport modes lack the capacity to provide door-to-door transport services to passengers hence, road transport provides this extra-mile transport needs to complement each mode, this shows the uniqueness of road transportation. Truly speaking road transport plays vital roles by facilitating movement of people and materials, helping trade and commerce, linking industry and agriculture to market places and open-up of new settlements and more importantly, providing transport needs or services to complement other modes of transport. Nevertheless, as it is noted earlier, good road network is needed to enhance growth and development, therefore, no successful enterprise or developed nation without efficient use of road transportation.
Source: TexasMonthly There’s no doubt to say transportation modes on land are playing key role in complementing other modes of transport such as air transport, sea/water transport or pipeline transport and as well as boosting the economic growth of any given nation.Overland transport modes are majorly road and railway transportations and both are fully operated on land and in case of emergency, they play important role in mass evacuation of people and goods. For instance, if there’s natural disaster or threat in an area overland transport can be used for rapid mass evacuation of people and goods. However, because of the importance of this two land transportation modes to a nation and their various users, there’s need for government and freight industries to improve the freight security and efficiency of overland transports in many ways such as road transport, rail transport, traffic management, track maintenance, mobility, level crossing safety measures to mention but a few. One of the major problems among others facing rail and road transportation is security, this is because the two transport modes are commonly used as tools by criminals to carry out their evil works. This explains the need for innovative security services relating to both road and rail transportation that will enable their operations safer for various users. It’s important to know that the two transport modes are the major easy target for criminals like kidnapper, terrorist, armed robbers and so on. Due to increase in this menace the Transport Security Administration (TSA) has warned both transport and freight industries against terrorists hijacking trucks and driving to the crowd to cause weapon of mass destruction. For instance, The Transport Security Administration reveals that within 3 years vehicles were hijacked and used in 17 times to kill 173 people while 665 people were injured. Likewise, in Nice, France, Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhel drove a tractor trailer into a gathering celebrating Bastille Day, killing 87 people including children and injured more than 400 people. In March 29, 2010, there was “A double suicide bombing at Lubyanka and Park kultury stations of the Moscow Metro killing 40 people while 102 people were injured.” Source: Wikipedia. Likewise, on March 22, 2016, in Belgium, there was suicide bomb attack at Maalbeek metro station in Brussels which caused the death of 20 people and 200 people were injured. Source: Wikipedia. Having read the above data you will note that overland transport modes are commonly used by the criminals hence, the need to increase focus on land transportation security such as surveillance on road and railways becomes inevitable. Another reason for physical security in overland transportations is that they are mostly used for illegal transactions across the borders such as illegal drugs, weapons, piracy, illegal immigration and so on.Bus and rail terminals are locations where passengers and freights are assembled in large number for immediate transportation and at such places safety and physical and freight security should be a major concern for transport and freight industries. Why? It’s because stealing or thefts is one of the common problems at terminal and it may also be seen as potential target for terrorist attack. Strong security in overland transportation has huge benefits to a nation such benefits include the followings:
- It will truncate the unwanted transportation operations of illegal weapons and suspicious people that may cause insecurity or any other form of security threats thereby, boosting the commerce and industrial activities.
- It will also reduce stealing or theft at terminal as well as reducing diversion of goods thereby, eliminating the direct losses thereafter.
- It will also reduce illegal transportation of all sorts of contraband goods such as counterfeit products, narcotics or marijuana, weapons, hazardous materials e.g. chemical that can cause death if inhaled, to mention but a few.
- It makes it difficult if not impossible for people to evade taxes and duties.
- It will also reduce the illegal immigration of people into the country.
Over decades, rail transport has been playing a key role in building nations by carrying thousands of goods and people across a particular nation on trips of business, discovery and pleasure, as well as opening up the vast open spaces, thereby creating development and market opportunities. To this end, the following are the most notable rail distances in the world: 1. A rail trip between Moscow in Russia and Pyongyang in North Korea is the longest distance rail trip in the world with a space of 10,267 km. The usual time always planned for the trip is 206 hours. This means it takes a train not less than 8 days to complete the journey. 2. A rail trip from Moscow in Russia to Vladivostok in Russia is the 2nd longest rail trip in the world with a space of 9, 289 km, the normal hours for the trip is 144 hours. In order words, it takes a train 6 days to complete the journey. 3. Moscow in Russia to Beijing in China through Harbin railroad is the 3rd longest rail trip in the world with a space of 8,984 rail km; the journey will take 6 days or 145 hours. 4. Moscow in Russian to Beijing in China through Ulaanbaatar railroad is a distance of 7,826 km and it will take 127 hours or 5 days and few hours to complete the journey. 5. The rail distance between Moscow and Tommot in Russia is 7,318 km and a train is expected to use 140 hours or 5 days and few hours to complete the journey. 6. From Kashgar to Yingtan in China is a rail distance of 5,166 km, and itwill take 72 hours 39 minutes or 3 days and few hours for a train to complete the journey. 7. A trip between Guangzhou to Lhasa in China is about 4,980 km; such a trip will take 53 hours or 2 days and some hours for a train to complete the journey. 8. Shanghai to Yining in China is 4,742 km and its normal travel time for a train to complete the journey on the route is 55 hours 43 minutes or 2days and few hours. 9. Guangzhou to Urumqi in China is a 2 days journey of 4,684 km distance; a train is expected to spend 49 hours, 34 minutes. 10. From Toronto to Vancouver in Canada is 4,466 km railroad; such a trip will take a train 86 hours or better still 3 days and few hours.
Generally speaking, passengers’ attitudes have an influence in determining whether to choose rail transport for their long distance trips or not. The huge benefits of travelling a long distance by rail have heavily influenced the public perceptions in choosing the rail for their long distance trips. However, there arelist of benefits that both the passengers and the service providers will enjoy in long distance trips by rail. Here are the benefits: 1. Long distance rail trips are cost efficient. For instance, what will cost a train to move several tons of goods on a single journey may cost nothing less than 10 trailers to move the same goods at a higher cost. 2. The origin and destination of travelling a long distance by air ends in the airport, but travelling a long distance by rail can take you to a desired city, town or village that is located along the rail road corridors. 3. Many air passengers who fail to use busy airline may end up waiting more than necessary for their flight and they may also have to pay higher fares. Passengers in long distance rail trips pay cheaper fares for their trips andthey embark on their trips without much delay. 4. Travelling a long distance by road may increase your trip time more than necessary, why? This is because your driver may want to take breaks for rest and meal and also, you may come across several check points; all of these significantly increase your trip time. These are not so in rail transportation. No several check points and the train does not need to stop for anyone to take meals. 5. At times, a driver on a long distance trip may deliberately decide not to take break for rest or meal in order to save time and money. This may result to an unnecessary stress, fatigue and other factors that may impair the ability to drive safely on the road, wherefore, putting his own life and the lives of other innocent people at risk. However, passengers on long distance rail trips travel without stress or danger to others; they move freely and safely. The passengers can eat and even sleep without any cause for alarm while the journey progresses. 6. The train can quickly make many intermediate stops without using much fuel. This is not possible in air transport. 7. Railway stations are less expensive to build and also easy to operate when you compare it to airports. 8. A long distance rail links many markets together, thereby generating more economic revenues. 9. A long distance rail trip helps generate more revenues to the rail company and also enables the company to spend less when you compare it to short distance operations. 10. Train use fuel more efficiently than air and road transport, for instance, a train can use a gallon of fuel to move one ton worth of goods more than 400 miles, this is not possible with road transport, while air craft on its own burns almost half of its fuel in landings and take offs.
The people’s attitudes and perceptions towards long distance trips by rail are important in determining potential passengers. Also, they are capable of creating either positive or negative impact on rail transport. These days, mostly in Europe,railway transport companies provide both national and international long distance transport services to their potential passengers. Therefore, traveling a long distance by rail becomes unique and the attitudinal behavior of people toward long distance journeys by rail becomes a major factor in determining the sustainability of long distance journeys by rail and the prosperity of rail transport companies engaging in long distance trips. Without any element of doubt, long distance trips by rail and the rate at which people use the train for their long distance trips are increasingly growing these days as more affordable mode to either of road or air transport. The value and the importance of long distance trips by rail transport cannot be overlooked; it connects different towns, villages and cities and many markets along the route together to produce greater revenue. Despite the importance of long trip rail transport, it is important to know that the belief and the perception of the people can affect the demand for long distance rail trips both positively and negatively. There are factors that can determine the attitude of passengers toward long distance rail transport. Such factors are: Safety Accessibility Affordability Convenience Comfort security Safety: This is one of the major factors that can affect the attitude of passengers. Potential passengers must be sure that they are safe from harm or danger when engaging in a long distance trip by train. They must have confidence that the service providers are conscious of their safety throughout the journey. You can imagine what the attitude of passengers would be if the train they are traveling on a distance trip is stuck down for two days in the middle of the journey, probably, in a thick forest where they are not close to any town or village. Such an experience will surely discourage passengers to travel by rail, especially during along distance trip. Accessibility: It’s important to note that long distance rail trips provide access to many cities, towns, villages and market places. This will likely encourage people to choose the train for their trips and more importantly, rail transport itself must be easily accessible by potential passengers; people must find it possible to choose the train for their trips. If the rail transport is not easily accessible then it will not be attractive or possible for passengers to choose the train for their longer trips. Affordability: The use of transport cannot be neglected either by individuals or organizations. More importantly, nations can’t afford to neglect transport in its economy. These explain why transport is important and why it must be easily affordable to everyone. Rail transport must be cost effective; people must be able to choose the train for their long distance trips without having serious problem to pay for it. If many people are unable to afford train transport for their needs due to high rate of transport fare, this may discourage many potential passengers. However, it’s interesting to note that, till date, railway transport still provides more avoidable service to the public when you compare it to other modes of transport. Convenience: Rail transport companies must ensure that people choosing the train for their long distance trips must be free from any form of stress. Transport companies must add features to the train that will make long distance trips luxurious. A train traveling on a long distance, probably for two days, is expected to have vital features that will reduce the burden of the passengers in such a long distance trip. It is also interesting to note that most trains used for distance journeys have many features to make such long trips stress free. Comfort: For instance, a train on an international trip moving from Moscow in Russia to Pyongyang in North Korea will have to spend at least 206 hours to cover 10,267 kilometers. This means between Moscow and Pyongyang a train is expected to spend not less than 8 days, wherefore, passengers in such a long distance trip may feel worry, be upset and frighten during the journey. As a result of this, the number of passengers on long distance trips may be reduced. Therefore, every rail transport company must do everything possible to make every long distance trip an enjoyable experience for all passengers on board. Rail transport providers must ensure that passengers are content with regard to their well-being throughout the journey. All passengers must enjoy all the comfort they deserve; even their seats must be designed for comfort. A dissatisfied passenger may be dangerous. However, the railway transport companies should ensure that their passengers are comfortable throughout all journeys. Security: The fear of rap, terrorist attack, armed robbery and other forms of crime may discourage people mostly female passengers from choosing the rail transport for their long distance trips. Therefore, measures must be taken by service providers to guard against any form of attack or crime during trips. Adequate security must not be neglected to ensure that people are free from fear and anxiety during their journeys. Nevertheless, choosing rail transport for long distance journey is good; therefore the rail transport service providers must continue to guide the belief and perception of their passengers by providing them quality services that are free from any form of danger or harm.
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:I 80_Eastshore_Fwy.jpg A highway is the main public road that connects different cities, towns and at times, villages etc. together. It is a major and significant public road that is able and fit to carry fairly heavy traffic. Since automobile has gained popularity in the world today, the need for adequate and efficient transport system for promoting economic development is a notable fact that cannot be doubted. Substantial investments on road infrastructure developments by government at the different levels e.g. federal, state and local government are also frantic efforts to attracting investors that will promote the economy. Highways have great benefits to industries, educational institutions, tourist centers, hospitals, to mention but few. It plays an indispensable role in the economy of both the developed and the developing countries of the world in making travels easier and faster. Hence, any problem that may affect smooth transport operations on highways may have greater negative impacts on the economy of a nation, at large. This and many other reasons explain why highways are important to a nation. However, below are the benefits of highways: 1. Good transport infrastructure, like highway network enhances transport system that reduces transportation costs and this, in turn, definitely reduces the production costs while it increases productivity and profitability of organizations. 2. Highway network also makes transportation schedules and deliveries more reliable and timely. 3. Highways also contribute immensely to social growth, relatives are able to visit their loved ones more often and it enhances good relationship between family and friends. 4. Highways can relatively reduce travel time to villages, cities and towns thereby encourage people to travel for business and trade. 5. Highways make journeys faster, comfortable and safer than usual while at the same time reduce fuel consumption. Nevertheless, the designs, construction and regulations of the highways and the vehicles used on them and the training of drivers and other road users may go a long way in making our highways safer for all of us.
Agriculture still remains the most important industry in the world today; no individual can do without food. Food insecurity in any nation is the beginning of hunger and other related problems such as poor health, kidney disease, eye disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease etc. To be healthy requires good nutritious meals at all times but most people living in a country where there’s food insecurity have to choose inexpensive foods with low nutritional values and with time, these may seriously affect their health. Furthermore, citizens in food insecure nations are likely to suffer for psychological and behavioral health issues while their kids may also have problems in their studies. In a simple term, good food is indispensable; it is a mechanism for building a foundation for good health. Apart from health issues, agriculture generates revenue and also provides jobs, raw materials e.g. cocoa, rubber etc. and more importantly, food for all. Having considered the enormous importance of agriculture to a nation, it is equally important to look at one major factor, among others, that has the potentials to contribute directly to agricultural growth of any nation. This singular factor is road transportation. The importance of road transportation in linking the rural areas of a nation together for agricultural growth cannot be under-emphasized. The connectivity facilitated by road transportation is the most and probably a single important factor that determines the well being and quality life of both the people living in the rural and the urban areas of a nation and more importantly, a potential factor for agricultural growth. Access to various rural communities by road transportation provides relative advantages for agricultural growth. A road investment contributes directly to agricultural growth in various ways you need to know. However, here are the ways: 1. Road transportation is quick, convenient and flexible for both short and long distances for transporting agric produce from villages and other rural communities to where they are needed. 2. Investment on road transportation and infrastructures enable collection from community-to- community or village-to- village delivery. 3. Road transportation plays an important role to complement rail transportation in evacuating large quantity of agric produce from rural communities. Road transport is the only mode that connects various villages and also serves as a link to rail stations. In short, it’s a perfect complementary to rail transport system. 4. Road transportation has a unique benefit to farmers that produce perishable products such as vegetables, tomatoes etc., by helping them move such products quickly to the town or market place where they can be sold. 5. Road transportation system plays a highly significant role in controlling and protecting farms from an epidemic disease that can cause a high rate of mortality or from a destructively numerous pests that can destroy plantation e.g. a plague of locusts. This is possible through the prompt movement of essential insecticides or drugs by road to control such diseases or plagues. 6. In addition, road transport system also plays a very important role in the transportation of agric produce for short and medium distances. 7. Since agricultural produce may be raw materials for cottage industries or serve as food for people, hence, road transportation makes easy contact between farms, industries and markets possible. Having considered the above reasons, it will not be gainsaying that road transport is an indispensable factor for agricultural growth. Hence, road development is essential to bring agricultural products to the market places. Therefore, rural roads have special significance in agricultural growth.
Sea transportation is the movement of goods and people from one place to another by sea or any other waterways. Hence, ship engineers, as it were, are people who run or in charge of the engine in a ship. They play major roles in ensuring a smooth sea transportation and preventing unwanted mechanical or technical faults by maintaining propulsion plants during operations. These, among others, explain indispensable obligations of ship engineers. In addition, ship engineers also perform other functions such as maintaining the sewage, the lighting, the heating, the air conditioning, the lubrication, the ventilation, the propeller shafts and propellers, the refrigeration, the fabrication of engine parts for replacement e.g. bolts, valves etc., installing the engine controls, the electrical power generation plant as well as the water system in the ship. Other duties include managing life-saving equipment, fuel management, boat management, safety management, fire-fighting, first aid, supervising loading and off-loading hazardous materials, monitoring working conditions of engines and any other equipment so as to know whether or not they are working properly and to identify any fault, as well as engaging in pollution prevention in line with the international regulations and nautical tasks. However, there are different positions in ship engineering division generally for British and US vessel. Here are the positions: 1. Chief Engineer: This post is in charge of engine department. 2. Second Engineer in US it’s called 1st Assistant Engineer: This post engages in daily operations of engine department. 3. Third Engineer in US it’s called 2nd Assistant Engineer: The position takes the responsibility of maintaining the auxiliary engines and boilers. 4. Fourth Engineer in Us it’s called 3rd Assistant Engineer: This engineer unit maintains the air compressors, purifiers, pumps and auxiliary machinery. 5. Electro-technical Officer (ETO): The officer in charge maintains electrical and electronics equipment like radars, VHF and so on. 6. Electrical Officer: The officer maintains only the electronics equipment. 7. Junior Engineer 8. Cadet Technicians and craftsmen in ship engineer division In ship engineer division, there are other regular skilled jobs which include: a. Machinist or fitter: The person in charge fabricates and repairs machines. b. Motorman: The person assists the engineer and also does menial jobs. c. Oiler: The duty is to ensure that the machines are well lubricated. d. Wiper: The duty is to keep the engine room clean and tidy. Having considered the above enormous tasks of ship engineer division, it won’t be too much to say that the engineer division is indispensable in marine transportation.
Greatest volume of cargo in international trade is carried by sea transportation. This explains one of the important roles sea transportation plays in the world. Freight transportation by sea is a cheaper means by which people move their cargoes in large quantity from one nation to another. Industrial revolution becomes effective in a nation that has a well-developed marine transport. Indeed, it’s a necessary complement to other modes of freight transportation and trading activities. However, ships can be classified by its propulsion and size. Below are the types of ships in marine transportation: 1. Bulk Carriers: Like the name suggests, they are cargo ships used to carry large number of cargo. The main surface of the out-side floor of the ship is designed like a large box to carry cargoes. 2. Container Ships: Like the name suggests, it is used to carry large dry cargoes packaged into large standardized containers. To a large extent, most of these ships are moved by diesel engines. 3. Tankers: They are designed to carry liquid materials such as petroleum gas, crude oil, petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), chemicals, vegetable oil, wine and so on. 4. Refrigerated Ships: These are also cargo ships used to carry perishable items that need controlled temperature to preserve its freshness and such perishable items include: fruits, meat, fish, and vegetable among others. 5. Roll-on/roll- off ships: These ships are specially designed to carry dry cargoes like automobiles, trailers, railway carriages. The ships are designed with ramps that make it easy to roll in and roll out. 6. Coastal Trading Vessels: These are used for trading activities between different areas, nations and continents. They are usually small in size. 7. Ferries: These kinds of vessels are commonly used as public transport for people living in water-side areas; they are used to move passengers and their belongings such as any form of vehicles, luggage, and equipment, among others. 8. Cruise Ships: These are used mostly by tourism industries. They are ships used purposely for pleasure and people traveling in cruise ships are people traveling for recreation. 9. Ocean Liners: These are ships used to carry large number of people from one seaport to another on a long regular- distance planned at a certain time. They are also used to carry cargoes, mails and at times, they are used for any other purpose. Ocean liners normally are strong ships designed to resist rigorous conditions they are likely to face while on ocean. 10. Cable Layers: These are undersea or submarine built vessels purposely used to lay cables for telecommunications, electricity etc. below the surface of water. 11. Tug-boats: These boats are used to tow other boats or vessels. 12. Dredgers: They are ships usually used in a depth-less area of the sea that may affect smooth operations of the ship. These ships are designed to dig out and remove the materials that sink to the bottom of the sea. 13. Barges: They are flat-bottom boats usually used to move heavy cargoes on rivers and canals. It is important to note that most barges use tugboats or towboats to operate. 14. Multi-purpose ships: They are ships used to carry various items both in bulk and small quantities and at times, they are used to move heavy items. The modern ones are now designed to carry containers.