Global Transport and Logistics

Transport and logistics from around the world.

Category: public transport (Page 1 of 2)

Understanding Transport Economics

U.S. Close to Proceeding With Mexico-Only Trade Deal

Transport economics is one of the most interesting courses I underwent as a university undergraduate in the department of Transport Planning and Management. It is a comprehensive economic knowledge that focuses on efficient transport operation with less expenditure in order to strengthen the nation’s economy.

Transport history reveals that transport, as it were, is as old as the existence of man’s creation on earth. Then, the personal and biological responsibility of man to search for his needs, mostly his daily food, could not be fully realized without an element of transport for his mobility; and the only relevant means of transport then was walking. Till now, walking still remains an indispensable and unique means of mobility. Truly speaking, it is difficult, if not impossible, to see a man who would engage in any activity without walking or without the use of any transport element.

However, a report of the economic activities of any given country is not complete without notable reference to the impact of transportation on the nation at large. The various demands for transport and the supply of transport facilities or resources such as road transportation network, rail tracks, ports as well as vehicle and vessels to meet such demands play a notable part in building and strengthening both rural and urban economy. It is also a notable factor in the development of other resources. These explain the need for transport economics.

In addition, the activities through which goods and services are produced, sold and bought within and outside a country cannot be possible without the element of transportation. Transportation gives undeniable support to production and trade in any region of a nation; therefore, the significance of transport economics cannot be overlooked in building a nation’s economy.

What is Transport Economics?

In economics, there are various areas of knowledge developed to solve various economic problems in different disciplines with the main focus to strengthen the national economy. For better understanding, these developed areas of economic knowledge are worthy of mention, and they include Industrial Economics, Agricultural Economics, National Economic Planning, Public Finance Economics, International Economics, Behavioural Economics, Ecological Economics, Environmental Economics, Health Economics, Information Economics, Monetary Economics, Population Economics, Urban Economics, among others. However, the question still remains: What is Transport Economics?

Transportation is concerned with the movement of people, goods and services from one place to another; while economics on the other hand is concerned with resources allocation. Therefore, transport economics is concerned with the careful allotment and efficient use of transport resources to meet various specific transport demands in the society or within an organization.

Transport economics aims to find maximum-value-use and less expenditure of all transport resources and infrastructure such as roads, vehicles, rail tracks, vessels, ports, railway stations, rail yards, signal systems, ships, airports, traffic control systems, etc., to meet particular or various transport demands.

The transport sector is faced with various factors that could affect its growth such as congestion, competition, shortage and poor infrastructure, political barrier, to mention a few. Hence, the need to apply economics as an effective means to tackle the various factors that can inhibit the growth of the transport sector becomes inevitable.

In essence, transport economics is a mechanism or tool that can be used to ensure the efficient use of different modes of transport so as to have better advantage from transportation and to strengthen the economy of a nation at local, regional, national and international levels.

In the world today, the transport sector remains the largest employer of labour as well as the largest industrial sector in the world, yet there are various problems that the transport industries and the transport consumers encounter during transport operations such as: high cost of freight transportation, rise and fall of air transport fares, keen competition and struggle to survive among transport industries of the same mode, high cost of aircraft fuel, undue cargo delay at seaport, undue passenger queue and delay at airport, bus stop and train station, high cost of running transport industry, to mention but few. However, it is noteworthy that transport economics is that branch of economics that provides strategic solution to these problems.

In order to gain maximum benefits from the transport sector and its operations, transport economics provide optimal economic management techniques to transport operations, organizational decision making, freight and passenger transportation, scientific organization of labour and wages, economic methods for measuring expenditures and economic impact or results in transport operation, etc. to the operation of all transport modes. These include rail transport, air transport, maritime transport, river transport, road transport and pipelines transport.

Transport economics is the area of economic knowledge designed to improve transportation. Transport economics experts develop scientific transport recommendations that can be extensively used to solve important transport problems and also help to relieve the transport system or sector of excessive work with little impact.

Importance of Transport Economics and Skills

  1. Transport economics experts acquire the ability to collect, analyze, organize and critically evaluate information pertaining to the transport industry.
  2. Experts in transport economics also acquire the ability to identify and solve transport issues through creative thinking.
  3. Transport economics experts are trained to evaluate economic policies that affect the transport sector.
  4. Transport economics helps to understand political barriers that can inhibit transport operations.
  5. Transport economics also contribute to economic development of a nation through job creation.
  6. Transport economics makes economic activities possible through the efficient use of transport and also serves as a branch of economic knowledge to boost transport operations.
  7. Transport economics can be used to support full multimodal transport operations and to also enhance transport capital development projects such as ports, rail track network, railway stations, among others.
  8. Transport economics experts are equipped with training, skills and experience which enable them to identify the best measures to achieve certain transport goals or targets.
  9. Transport economics ensures that the comprehensive benefits of transport investment accrues to all transport users rather than only direct users which has been the common practice in some transport sectors with a limited focus that ignores many potential benefits for transport users or transport service consumers at large.
  10. It is important to stress that transport economics as a branch of knowledge in the field of economics is also designed to provide transport support to other economic branches of knowledge like Industrial Economics, Agricultural Economics, Health Economics, Labour Economics, etc. Hence the saying, ‘The thumb is a little finger that touches the other fingers’. Indeed, transport economics is a thumb that touches other areas of economic knowledge for efficiency.
  11. Transport economics unit in any organization may also be concerned with providing reliable measures supported by quality data gathered to provide a sound basis for decision-making.
  12. Transport economics unit can also undertake the task of combining and comparing results from different economic evaluation and estimation techniques so as to use as a tool for proper transport operation planning and management.
  13. Transport economics unit can be saddled with the responsibility of conducting economic analysis of transport impacts and cost benefits assessment from types of investments made on transportation as well as measuring the effects on transport users.

In conclusion, transport infrastructure and transport providers are two key important factors for the transport sector to function. However, due to the increase in demand for transport services, there is also an increase in problems associated with transport services such as congestion, pollution, road accident, rail collision, rail derailment, cargo delay, etc. Therefore, the need to understand and to satisfy the high demand for transport services while reducing the expenditures and its associated risks to the barest minimum makes transport economics to remain most crucial.

 

 

Monorail and Its Unique Features

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Source: picssr.com

There are different modes of transport viz: Rail transportation, Sea Transportation, Air transportation, Road transportation and Pipeline transportation. However, in road transportation we have three (3) transport systems which are Road transport system, Rail transport system and monorail transport system, in all of these transport modes and systems, monorail is the most unpopular overland transport in developing countries.

The Characteristic of Monorail

Monorail is normally elevated above traffic, above congestion, above pedestrian and above vehicles. In fact, its grade is separated from surface traffic of all kinds, cars, trucks, trains, people, bicycle, motorcycle and so on. So that monorail can run without any interference from other means of transport thereby, improving traffic flow and reducing the accident rate. These are part of the uniqueness of monorail.

Monorail the Safest Transport System

In addition, monorail is the safest transport system because of its grade separation. It cannot for any reason whatsoever collide with cars or other vehicles or run over people or bicycles. In fact, people can ride bike or walk without having to look out for on coming vehicles or train as the case may be for any pedestrian who intends to cross the road or railway track. Monorail actually wraps around single ‘rail’ and it cannot derail like I said. Indeed, it is the safest transport for now in the world. It has a low accident rate when you compare it to other transport modes. For instance, the first fatal monorail accident occurred on the 5th of July, 2009, at Walt Disney World in Florida. In fact, it is first fatal accident ever happened in the 38 year history of the monorail system. You can imagine it yourself the number of accidents that might occurred in other modes of transport in 38 years. Therefore, my earlier assertion that monorail is the safest transport system is not a gain saying but a stark truth.

No Noise Pollution in Monorail Transport

More so, monorail does not make any noise on motion unlike cars, articulated vehicles (trailers), buses, air crafts and so on. In fact, it is the most quiet overland transport. It does not produce any harmful noise like that of automobiles or jet airplanes in an environment. Do you know that the noise produced by vehicles and air crafts can be annoying or disturbing a man in his environment? But monorail transport system does not produce such undesirable noise. It is environmental friendly.

Monorail uses Electricity not Fuel.

It is also important to let you know that monorail is electrically powered therefore; a standby power supply is usually made available for its operations. Since it is powered by electricity it does not pollute our environments as we have in road transport and air craft. Hence, it supports the green environment program. However, monorail does not take a wide space as any one may think; its line can be placed in the street within a space of 4 or 5 feet Column.

Monorail a Viable Public Transport

However, monorail has the capability to move large number of goods and people far more than what a luxurious bus can carry at once without interfering with any other land transport. Indeed, it is a good form of macro transportation. For instance, Walt Disney World monorail transport system in Florida, has one of the highest ridership in the world, it offers service to over 100,000 passengers in each day operations.

Nonetheless, the use of monorail as public transport system in urban cities makes the most economical sense of all over land transport. Increasing its usage is a better means of contributing to healthier environment as well as reducing road accidents and rail collision.

5 Notable Factors that can affect all modes of transport operations

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Here are the factors:
1. Safety and Security
2. Transport Policy
3. Transport Management
4. Communication
5. Training.
Safety and Security
The issues of safety and security are universal factors that can affect  smooth operations of any mode of transport around the world. Since we all know that
transport plays an important role in human life, it’s a major means by which goods and people move from one place to another. Hence, transportation becomes  a potential target for criminals. The security weakness in transportation results to several attacks by these criminals on different modes of transport during operations. To this end, the issues of transport safety and security become paramount.
However, there are two major types of safety and security threats to smooth transport operations. These are terrorism and criminal activities. Terrorism is often used for political, social or religious reasons and the major target, among others, is transportation, e.g. September 11 attack on America. Criminal activities, on the other hand, involve high-way robbery, theft in railway transport and freight terminals, etc. These are significant challenges to any mode of transport operation in the world.
Transport Policy
Transport policy has to do with the advancement or creation of a set of considerations that are found to achieve acceptable objectives connecting to social, economic and environmental advancement and the functioning and efficiency of the transport system.
The aim of a good transport policy is to produce strong decision on the distribution of transport resorts or resources which include transport management and control of existing transport activities.
Moreover, in most countries of the world, transports are mostly owned and managed by private owners but governments are mostly involved in making transport policy for all transport modes with the aim of achieving a set of
particular goals.
In addition, the importance of transport policy is that it has the potential, either positively or negatively, to affect virtually every aspect of economic, social and political activities of nation states, e.g. deregulation and privatization.

Transport interchange, Freiburg, Germany. (tram stop on bridge over main railway station.) Stock Photo
Picture showing transport interchange in Freiburg, Germany.

Transport Management
Transport management operations involve all transport modes which have to do with managing all aspects of maintenance, fuel costing, scheduling, communications, carrier selection, cargo handling, staffing, even accounting, among others.
However, there are key factors of transformation that can effect change in
transport management of all transport modes of any given nation state. The
factors are:
*changes in work practices
*changes in customer behavior
*changes in technology
*changes in workloads
*external and unforeseen factors
*local peculiarities
*trade barriers

Communication
As transport plays an important role in the economy of any given nation, communication, in much the same vein, plays an important role in transportation. Transport system helps to create relationship among different parts of the peoples within a country and between two or more countries and strengthens the feelings of unity among them. However, to achieve this important role of transport, the role of communication in transportation becomes inevitable.
Communication, as it were, is the medium of passing data and news. Communication system assists all modes of transport service providers in any nation to take the right decisions at the right time by making information and news related with transport business available to them. Communication makes it possible for passengers to know about the transport fare of different transport providers in any part of the world in no time and it also helps the transport companies to manage transport operations accordingly through communication system.
Therefore, communication system facilitates transport advancement by making accurate information available for both transport service providers and their numerous passengers. As a result, poor communication system may affect the smooth transport operation of any nation.
Training
Training of the staff in transport business is very important. It’s a way of enhancing the staff skills for efficiency. Training also helps the thinking ability of the staff for quality performance. Training, in transport, is very important for development and success of any transport mode in any nation. Truly speaking, a well trained staff becomes more efficient and productive on his job.
When transport industries train their staff, it tends to enable them understand the mission, vision, working conditions and the rules and regulations of the organization better, thereby helping them key into the vision of the organization.

Transport: A desirable element in tourism industry

Transport and tourism are two sides of a coin that cannot be separated from each other when it comes to tourism industry. Although, transport can survive without tourism but tourism cannot survive without transportation, this explains why transport is more crucial in tourism industry. Transport plays a key role in expansion of both international and national tourism, transport provides connections between regions, domestically and internationally and connecting attractions, accommodation and commercial services. Transport as it were has major effect on the growth of tourism in any nation. The important of tourism varies from one country to another and it has the potential to contribute significantly to the country’s wealth. At this point, it is important to examine the benefits of tourism to any nation and to also see why transport is so crucial to achieve these benefits.

* Tourism creates employment.

One of the benefits of tourism is the jobs it brings to the people; it creates direct employments, such direct employments are tour guides, hotel staff, coach services, restaurants, drivers among others. Another interesting fact about tourism is that they source for locally produced goods and products; this means tourism can also boost local industries, therefore, creating indirect jobs to the people. Therefore, without transport job creation in tourism will be difficult, if not impossible.

*It makes more money available in local community

Tourism enhances global trade, there are quite number of basic human needs that a tourist will like to buy or have, example of these needs are: food, clothing, hairdressing, transportation, medical services and so on, therefore, the money spent by the tourists at the tourist center on their basic needs, makes more money available in the community thereby, boosting the local economy of the community. Nevertheless, if tourist centers are not easily accessible by train or bus, then the act of buying and selling will appear to be a mere fallacy, as a result of this, more money will not available to boost the economy of the community.

*Economy diversification

Tourism is another way to generate revenue into the economy. Tourism is essential to a community or country that relies majorly on a single industry, to such country or community; it is a viable source to generate revenue.

*It improves infrastructure.

Tourism enables a nation to develop infrastructure of the nation’s rural area where tourist centers are located, for any tourist center to function very well and to attract a lot of tourists, then good infrastructure must be developed. Building of good roads, parking space, hospital, electricity, airports and so on, will encourage more visitors (tourists) to visit tourist center in the local area. Since tourism also generates a lot of revenue to the economy, then, government is also expected to develop good infrastructure for tourist centers.

*It brings cultural advantages.

Tourism can also be used to protect cultural heritage of a particular community where tourist center is located. Tourists may also have the opportunity to know the history of the local community. It also promotes inter-cultural exchange.

However, it is important to note that the huge benefits that tourism brings to the communities and the nation at large cannot be achieved without transportation. This explains why transport is inevitable in tourism.

Special Public Transport for Disable: A Desirable Government Civil Responsibility. By Owinje Peter.

Transport is important to the life of individual and to any given organization. No individual or any organization can do without it. It is an inevitable element for all. In fact, the importance of transport cannot be over emphasized in the society at large.

Since, it is generally believed that transport is important in our society and it plays a key role in the nation’s economy of any country, then I also think, it is more important to talk about those that even need it more than us in our society.

Most of the time I see a disabled man on the street struggle for mobility, I do have sympathy for them, I do imagine that if government can provide special public transport that is avoidable and convenience for disabled people their struggle for mobility will be over or lesser.

Inequality in a Wrong Priority

Often the time I hear most people talking or debating about gender inequality, they are so passionate about gender equality, while nobody or very few people talk about inequality we show to people with disability in the society. I imagine, if many people that talk about gender inequality are in their shoes how will they feel, as a person? Will they be still talking about equality for those that have eyes to see; those that have legs to walk; those that have hands to work and more importantly, those that have better opportunities to be successful in life, than a mere handicapped on the street begging for help, this is one of the ways which inequality may be more meaningful to me. I think inequality as it were, can be understood, better if we can imagine the discrimination that the disabled people are facing in our society. I am not actually against gender equality, but I think there is more important issue we need to talk about than gender equality and until this inequality we show to disabled people in our society is fully addressed especially in the area of transportation, campaigning for gender equality may be nothing than a self centered and a myopic priority. If transport problem for disabled people can be solved, then it means more than half of their problems in life have been solved. With this as an individual, debating for gender equality will be meaningful than it is now.

 Disabled people rely mostly on transport.

Do you know that people with disability use public transport even more than the general public? In other words, disabled people rely more on transportation for their mobility than the general public. But it is a pity and very unfortunate that special public transport they needed is not always available for them. They are denied of their civil right and equal opportunity in their own country. Many of them in some part of the world surfer for lacked of affordable and reliable special public transport they needed to access important opportunities in education, employment, health care, housing, to mention but a few, and we are making noise publicly about gender inequality, what other inequality do we need to eradicate that is more important than this in our society, lack of genuine feeling or sympathy for people with disability make people to ignore them in their own community.

However, since the disabled people rely more on transport for their mobility, government at any level should rise up to the task by providing special public transport for disabled people in our society. They are fellow citizen like us and they deserve the special buses or vehicles that are accessible by wheelchair. Special bus stop that can be easily accessible by wheelchair can also be located in different part of the city for them.

Since we know that government belongs to all, then special public transport for handicapped is a right and a desirable government responsibility.

3 Major Reasons for Lack of Special Transport Service for Handicapped in Many countries and Its Solutions By Owinje Peter.

Problems are inevitable; they seem so natural or bound to happen. One of such is the lack of special public transport for disabled people in their own countries.With what I have seen so far in my country or better still, what I’ve discovered is that, the majority of disabled people hardly leave their homes because of transport difficulties they faced in the society. This is one of their major frustrations.

Why disabled people have to face transport problem for so long in their countries is because they are not fully considered in the community. Those who are supposed to meet their transport needs are not ready to shoulder the responsibility. As a result of this, transportation choice for disabled people is almost zero or extremely limited in their own countries.

3 Major Reasons why Disabled People have to face Transport problem in their Community

  1. Disabled people are not included in policy making in their countries hence, they are not fully considered.

In most countries disabled people are not part of the policy makers hence; it may be difficult if not impossible for people who do not have better understanding or experience of what a disabled man is passing through to make a better policy that will positively affect the lives of disabled people. He who wears the shoe knows where the shoe pitches him or her, says an adage. Since, people with disability are not fully involved in policy making hence the transport problem for disabled will remain unsolved.

Solution

“What an old man seats down to see a young boy cannot stand up to see it even, if he climbs the highest tree in the village”, says an African adage. Since, disabled are not part of the policy making in their different countries it will be difficult for the policy makers to tackle the transport problem facing the handicapped properly even, if the policy makers are made the presidents or prime ministers of their countries yet, they will still not see far more than what a disabled man can see to tackle his own transport problems. Therefore, handicapped should be allowed to take part in policy making. Why? It is because he who wears the shoe knows better where the shoe pitches him or her. It is advisable and even better to allow those that have better experience of what it means to be a handicapped to suggest on how their transport problems should be tackled by allowing them to take part in policy making. Hence, the saying “experience is the best teacher”.

  1. In most countries, governments and transport providers do not consider transport needs for disabled people.

In addition, in some countries governments at different levels and transport providers do not consider it necessary to provide special transport for disabled people, due to this reason; transportation problem becomes the major problem for disabled people in their own countries. For instance, it is uncommon to see any public vehicle or bus run by governments or private individual that is accessible by wheelchair in my country. It is also difficult to see any bus stop designed for handicapped or that can be accessible by wheelchair. I also think the same thing happen in other countries especially in African countries. Why? It is because governments and transport providers in different countries do not think carefully about the transport needs for the handicapped. What a pity!

Solution

In my country I’ve seen government at different levels e.g. Federal, state and local government establishing a transport company for the public, but I hardly see a transport company that is established for disabled, either by the governments or private individual. This is a great inequality. One of the benefits of public transport is that, it supports social justice; this means that public transport should be made available and affordable for all kind of people in the society, rich, poor or handicapped. In view of this, it is wrong for both the governments and transport providers not to consider the transport needs for disabled people in their societies. Hence, the saying, 2 wrong things can never make a right. Governments and individual transport provider are expected to consider the transport needs for the disabled by providing public transport that is efficient, affordable and accessible.

Poor administration

It is important to note that if the best transport policy is made in order to tackle the transport challenges of disabled people, poor administration or implementation of such policy will play a setback in the wheel of progress, therefore, putting the hope for, better transport service for, disabled people in a great mirage. In short, the transport problem for disabled cannot be solved if the implementation or administration is poor.

Solution

Good administration and proper implementation are required to tackle or solve the transport problem for disabled people.

 

 

 

 

 

Top 10 Railway Network in the World

The following are the 10 countries with the longest railway network in the world:

  1. USA has not less than 250,000 km network.
  2. China has over 100,000 rail networks.
  3. Russian has over 85,000 rail networks.
  4. India is 1st in Asia countries and 4th in the world with 65,000 km operating route. Source: economicdiscussion.net
  5. Canada is on the fifth position with 48,000km rail network.
  6. Germany has 41,000 km rail network.
  7. Australia has 40,000 km rail network.
  8. Argentina has 36,000 km rail network.
  9. France has 29,000 km rail network. It is 2nd in Europe and 9th in the world.
  10. Brazil has 28,000km rail network.

Source: Railway technology.com

Warning: An epileptic patient riding a commercial motorcycle: A bid to untimely death. By Owinje Peter

Epilepsy defined.

According to MerriamWebster Dictionary defines epilepsy as: “any of various disorders marked by abnormal electrical discharge in the brain and typically manifested by sudden brief episodes of altered or diminished movements or convulsion.”

Firstly, I noticed in above definition that the problem has to do with the brain of a man; this explains why the disease is a serious problem, because the brain controls virtually every part in a man.

Secondly, it happens suddenly to the victim anytime or anywhere. This also, explains why people suffering from such disease should not be allowed to ride a motorbike or drive a car or vehicle anywhere. Indeed, it’s unwanted occurrence that can embarrass its victim publicly. These were exactly what happened to a commercial motorcycle operator I saw on, 11th of August, 2015.

An epileptic patient riding a commercial motorbike

On the said day I was in a commercial bus going home when we (3 passengers and the driver) noticed a commercial motorcycle rider who suddenly became very unconscious when the motorbike was already on a speed on highway, we all wonder what had happened to the man we had earlier seen riding his motorbike normally in front of the bus we occupied.

However, the man became very more unconscious at a speed on the highway; we saw his body shaking rapidly and his hands shaking aimlessly. As we were wondering of what had actually happened to the man in a twinkle of an eye, however, we over heard the voice of the only passenger he carried (a lady) shouting at him “why are you riding like this? Why are you riding like this……?”

The man could not control himself let alone the motorbike he was riding, eventually; he hit his motorcycle on our bus. It was a serious accident as both of them (the operator and the passenger) fell on the tied road, painfully enough both of them did not use crash element. However, they are so lucky or fortunate that no vehicle is following our bus bumper-to-bumper; otherwise it would have been a fatal accident. The operator fainted completely and he was carried away by his colleagues (commercial motorcycle riders) who knew him.

We latter got to know from his colleagues that the man in question was an epileptic patient who thought he had no other means to survive than to become a commercial motorcycle. The question is who to blame? Is it the innocent passenger that boarded the motorbike or the rider who is faced with problems of unemployment and poverty, but suffering from epilepsy disease or the government who suppose to regulate commercial motorcycle operations? The answer is yours.

In view of this incident and for safety purposes it will not be too much to suggest that proper safety regulations for both drivers and motorbike riders should not be undermined, also, they should undergo a test for seizures and epilepsy known as electroencephalograph (EEG) test, before license can be issued to them or allowed to ply the public roads with their vehicles or motorbikes.

It is important to note that many of these riders in the country do not have license while, most of them do not have registration identification numbers, and lack of proper policy needed to guide the commercial motorcycle operations and quality service provision among others are issues that need government courteous attention. In addition, poverty, poor standard of living, rate of unemployment and under employment that plunge many youths into indiscriminate commercial motorcycle operators must also be addressed by the government with immediate alacrity.

 

 

 

Public Transport operations in Spain

Spain has a very good public transport system in most of its major cities. Most cities have enough buses and rail transport that provide efficient transport service to the public. The public transport in Spain is more comfortable and convenient to board.

Rail transport operation in cities of Spain

The Spanish rail transport system is run by Government Company called Red Nacional de los Ferrocarriles Espanoles (RENFE). This organization provides service to major cities in Spain. Although it does not provide service to all small towns, however, it is supported by other railways operations like FFCC city lines Barcelona and private railways. However, RENFE uses the AVE trains for its operations, they are fast and efficient in fact, they are among the best train in Europe.

However, there are other many local trains that operate on short distance they are known as tranvia i.e. (tram). Also, suburban commuter trains i.e. (cercanias) they are second class service provider and they stop at all stations in Spain.

Transportation made by buses in cities of Spain.

The local buses in cities of Spain run around the clock, they operate from around 0600 until between 22:00 and midnight. However, midnight transport operation in Spain is more expensive. It is important to know that most local bus services in Spanish cities lack enough seats for passengers to sit hence, most passengers end up in standing for the rest of their journey. It is also, important to note that the buses operating within the urban cities are quite slow, however, to tackle this problem some major cities provide special lanes for buses in order, to enhance smooth and fast transportation. However, most towns in Spain have their bus terminal, nevertheless, whenever you are at a bus stop to board a bus, the bus may not necessarily stop for you unless you indicate your interest to board the bus or you wave to the driver to stop for you.

 

Transportation by taxi in Spanish cities                                                                                    

In Spain you are expected to use taxis that are allowed by the authority to operate within the cities, such taxis often display their special license. Since the taxis are monitored and governed by a strict legislation hence, they provide a very high standard service to the public. However, these public taxis often display a green light when they are free for any passenger to board. The taxis in cities of Spain are metered and they also have a set price for certain journey. However, tipping is their common practice in Spain.

Transportation by metro in Spanish cities

Metro transport lines are found in Madrid, Barcelona and Valencia. They provide the most fast transport services to get around these cities and during the rush hours, they are highly patronized. However, special tickets are made available for passengers to be used. Such tickets include, cheap day return, a metro card that allows the passengers unlimited use of metro lines for three (3) to five (5) days, and weekly and monthly tickets or passes are also available for passengers.

SOURCE: Spain-info.com

Public transport in Australia

Australia has many forms of transport, for instance, the country has more than 300 airports and not less than 33,819 km railway network. However, the country depends most on road transportation for instance; the number of car ownership in Australia is the second highest in the world. For you to determine the most affordable and convenient public transport option for any journey you intend to embark on, in Australia, you need to familiarize yourself with local, regional and cross-country transportation’s option.

Transportation by air in Australia

If you plan to travel long distance either between major cities or different regions in Australia, transportation by air may be the best option for you, the option will enable you to arrive your destination in time.

Transportation by rail in Australia

Rail transport system in Australia is more affordable and well established means of transport either within the state or between two states and across the country. The rail system provides different passes for passengers that allow multiple travel dates for up to ninety (90) days, hence, making the system cheaper and affordable. However, a research report has shown that rail transport system was the main mode of public transport used in Australia cities between 1945 and 2010. Even till today rail transport still remains an efficient means of public transport in Australia.

 

Transportation by bus in Australia (Adelaide city as a case study)

In Adelaide city, Australia Adelaide Metro public transport system is extensively patronized. Here, are some facts about the Adelaide transport service:

  1. The transport service provides transportation service to not less than eighty percent (80%) passengers by bus.
  2. The transport service operates over nine hundred (9,000) scheduled bus every weekday.
  3. Adelaide Metro public transport plies over two hundred routes by bus.
  4. Adelaide city in Australia has over seven thousand five hundred (7,500) bus stops.
  5. A passenger in Adelaide can complete a single journey between modes of transport within two (2) hours by using metro cards. This card is an integrated smartcard ticketing system that allows a passenger to change from one mode of transports e.g. bus, train and tram to another within two hours.
  6. Children less than five (5) years old enjoy free transport at all times, when they are accompanied by an adult. More also, two (2) children less than fifteen (15) years of age can also enjoy free transport when they are also, accompanied by an adult by using a day trip ticket on weekends, school holidays, and public holidays.
  7. Bus is the most easily, accessible transport in Adelaide city.

 

Source: sa.gov.au (Public transport facts)

By: Department of planning Transport and infrastructure

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