Global Transport and Logistics

Transport and logistics from around the world.

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Do Not Gamble With Rail Safety; If You Do, You Bet Your Life.

Related imagePicture showing a woman at a dangerous location
The unparalleled features of the rail transport over other land transports are
undeniable. As a result, the rail transport is gaining more patronage day by day.
Many people want to travel by rail while many organizations also like to engage
the services of the rail transport in moving their products in large quantities to where they are needed. This, they do, to reduce the transport cost for their
products. Wherefore, rail transport is playing a key role in moving people and
goods in large number.
It is important to note that many people gamble with their safety when making use of the rail transport. Passengers’ safety must not be the concern of rail transport management only but individual rail passengers must also have concern for their own safety while using or traveling by the rail transport.
Attitude is everything
Related imagePicture showing a bad and dangerous attitude of some passengers

Poor attitude of some passengers to railway safety is highly worrisome. The misbehavior some passengers exhibit while traveling in rail transport show their poor safety culture and that many of them are gambling with their lives. Poor or bad attitude to rail transport safety can be described as the way you think and behave that can endanger your life and the lives of other rail transport users.

Poor attitude of many people to transport safety also suggests their lack of safety culture to the transport mode they make use of. Safety culture in transport, as it were, is the way you are expected to think and behave in a particular environment with respect to transport safety. In other words, safety culture in transport is the transport safety features of everyday existence shared by people in a particular place. Anyhow, in a simple language, is a way of life with respect to transport safety.
A mature safety culture in railway transport is characterized by the way people
notice and understand the importance of safe operation in rail transport and the
urgent need to manage or reduce risk to an acceptable level. In a bid to improve
the railway safety, the responsibilities of individual passengers who have a potential impact on the safe operation of the railway system must not be compromised.
Is this a Sign of Poverty or Shortage of Public Transport?

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The safety of the railway depends on the behaviors and attitudes of everyone in the system e.g. the staff and the passengers. Having examined the pictures, one would wonder why people in their large number would have to take rail safety for granted; one may still be wondering why many people we see in this picture had to hang on rail cars why many of them sat on top of the train. It is not because of poverty or shortage of public transport that would make people in their large number to take their lives for granted as rightly shown in the pictures.

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The reasons are simply due to lack of good transport safety culture in the community and poor safety attitude of individual. It is needless to say, as you have also noticed in the pictures used in this article, that lack of safety culture with poor safety attitude can lead to misbehavior of many transport users that will increase the risk of accidents.

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Often times, rail accidents are caused by people. They are not made and they can be preventable instead of managing them. One way to achieve this is good safety culture with good safety attitude of individual; in fact, it’s a collective responsibility of all rail transport users. To address the misbehavior of people towards safety, hence, good safety culture and individual safety attitude are important directions to make the rail transportation and other modes of transportation safer.
Responsibilities for railway staff during operations

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*The safe movement of rail transport must start from the railway stations.
* Rail vehicles’ safety condition must be certified before any operation.
*Rail staff must ensure that every passenger behaves in a safe manner while
making use of the rail transport.
*The staff must take strong safe decision to control all types of safety risk or
misbehavior of all passengers during operation.
*They must ensure that safety regulations are complied with throughout each
operation.

5 ways of building and maintaining transport safety culture
Good transport safety culture is not what people can achieve in a moment or in a
day, it is a kind of belief people grow up with in a particular environment that can easily be noticed in their behavior. For instance, in one of the television stations, I heard the story of a senior transport safety officers from one of the African countries who traveled to one of the overseas countries. According to him, as he wanted to cross to the other side of the road, he said immediately he stepped on Zebra crossing with just one leg, he saw all the motorists both from left and right on such busy road stopped immediately.

So, he said he was afraid thinking that something bad like accident must have happened and so, he ran back from the road to see what actually had happened on the road. He saw the drivers calling him to cross the road; it was then he knew that it was him they actually stopped for. Why did he have to run back to know what was happening? It’s because he lacked road safety culture, even though he’s a senior road safety officer in his country, yet where he’s coming from he has not seen motorists, in one accord, stop at once for just a pedestrian to make use of the road. So when he got to a well cultured environment, it was a big surprise to him.

Nevertheless, here are some ways to build and maintain good safety culture:
1. Education: People need to be thought in a community or environment
where transport safety culture is lacking. Several efforts must be made to
teach people the importance of transport safety in the best language they
will understand.
2. Orientation: Periodic orientation must be given to the people on what they
have been thought and necessary information about new transport safety
they need to know.
3. Watchfulness: Individual transport users must always be careful enough to
notice any form of danger in their environment. The misbehavior of
individual transport users must be monitored and reported to the authority
concerned to correct such individuals.
4. Ability to change: Individual must be ready to adjust to any safety rules or
regulations.
5. Fair Justice: A fair culture treats people in a way that is reasonable and
proper. A fair culture encourages and rewards individual who would report
the misbehavior of some transport users and treats the report with required seriousness and thereafter, metes out just punishments to anyone
whose behavior is truly unacceptable.
6. Observations and report: To build a good safety culture, individuals must
also be encouraged to report their observations to the right authorities.
Often times, these have to do with sensitive reports such as highway
robbery, terrorist attack and so on.
7. Study: A study on past safety records and how to improve on them for
future purpose is another method to sustain a good transport safety
culture.
Nonetheless, the rail transport service provider must play a leading role at all
times in sustaining rail safety culture through education, public enlightenment among others. More so, railway infrastructure manager and the entire staff managing the infrastructures must also play their own role to sustain rail safety culture by fixing railway infrastructures such as track, station, signaling and electrification in an acceptable manner for safe operation. The engineering department must also play their own role; the department must ensure that every rail vehicle set for operation is in good condition.
In conclusion, the railway staff, the management, the individual passengers
and potential customers, that is, different organizations engaging the services
of railway transport for their products must all rise up to the task to fulfill their
individual responsibilities and co-operation to build and sustain rail transport
safety culture. Rail transport accident is always painful due to the number of innocent lives and goods that are usually involved, wherefore; cultivating the
mind of people towards rail transport safety culture is a great gain.

15 Benefits of Equipping Your Car with a functional Black Box and Its 5 Top Limitations.

Modern Event Data Recorder which is popularly known as Black Box is now installed in cars these days; new cars in the UK and the US now come with an installed black box. In a bid to reduce road accidents, car manufacturers now equip their new cars with a functional Black box.

The device shows when, where and how a car is being driven at a particular time. It gives detailed information and also serves as a feedback to the driver and any other third party. It warns the driver by giving alerts if pre-set parameters are exceeded, e.g. when over speeding.

It helps the new drivers, most especially the young drivers, to be more safety conscious while driving on the road, having realized that their driving behaviors can be monitored by a device installed in their vehicle; hence, they resist the temptation to over-speed or being influenced by their colleagues.

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The black box device can monitor drivers’ behaviors in the following ways:

*The beginning and the end of a journey

*Speed

*Location

*Acceleration

*Braking

*Cornering

*the use of seat belt

*Fuel used

However, the following are the benefits of the black box installed in a car:

  1. It is inexpensive. Most cars, these days in the UK and the US, come with car black box.
  1. Once it is installed in a car, it will continue to monitor the driving behaviors of the driver which may be difficult to observe by any other means.
  1. It can show how a particular car is being used which may be difficult to obtain by any other means.
  1. In case of an accident, it gives more objective, accurate and detailed information a few minutes before the incident.
  1. It is the best tool for employers to monitor and assess their drivers.
  2. It is a vital tool for improving safety and reducing risk and crash rates.
  3. It is a way to help young and new drivers to improve their driving behaviors.
  1. It also helps insurance companies to reduce traffic accidents by promoting safe driving through black box insurance.
  1. Stolen vehicles can be recovered. This is so because some of the black boxes have in-built GPS, which means your car can be tracked if reported stolen. Some boxes have the capacity to stop the ignition.
  1. Since the black box can provide accurate and detailed information few minutes before an accident, this will fast-track a claims process from insurance companies, wherefore serving as a reward for a good driver.
  1. It can serve as a vital research tool for researchers to gather as many data as possible on real-life and natural driving behaviors of many drivers and to determine the effects on drivers’ behaviors.
  1. It can provide data that can help the road safety or highway authorities to easily identify problem locations on their road network.
  1. Speeding has been identified as one of the leading factors of road accidents. However, with the introduction of the black box technology that enables the insurance companies to come up with Pay-AS- You-Drive policy in the US which means a financial incentive will be given to a good driver, this insurance policy has effectively reduced speed among young drivers, thereby reducing the accident rates that are likely caused by over speeding.
  1. It helps both the new and young drivers to correct their mistakes.
  2. It gives alerts if pre-set parameters are exceeded e.g. when over-speeding.

5 Most Notable Limitations of a Car Black Box

  1. It cannot measure or help to keep a safe distance.
  2. It cannot prevent dangers; it can only record the data before thedangers occur.
  1.  It cannot tell you who is driving, no matter how safe you are in driving. If somebody else with bad behavior in driving drives your car, this will affect your records because the device cannot tell us or identify who is driving the car at a particular time.
  1.  It only highlights a problem without providing an answer. For instance, when the feedback indicates: “unsafe driving” it will not show you the area of your driving that is not safe
  1. The audible alert may distract the driver.

3 Major Types of Railway Accidents and 36 List of Causes Common to Them

Rail Accident

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It is an undeniable fact that rail accidents have become a significant concern in the world and this explains why several efforts have been made by different countries concerned to reduce the rate of accident in their countries. However, in this article are the 3 major types of railway accident and the list of their causes.

3 Major Types of Railway Accidents

  1. Collision Accidents
  2. Derailment Accidents and
  3. Other Means of Accidents                                                                                         1. Rail Accident by Collision

Image result for pictures of rail accidents

A collision is a crash in which 2 trains hit each other. In other words, a collision occurs when a train runs into another or an object. Once it happens, the result is always very serious, if not fatal. This is why collision is the most dangerous accident in rail transports. However, the major types of collisions include:

* Head-on collision,

* Rear-end collision and

* Side collision

Types of Rail Accident by Collision

Since a collision involves 2 or more objects crashing into one another, hence this type of crash includes:

  1. Collision involving Trains
  2. Collision involving a Train and a Motor Vehicle
  3. Collision Involving a Pedestrian

Collision involving Trains

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This is a head-on collision between 2 trains. This kind of accident always results to great disasters.

Collision involving a train and a motor vehicle

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Several motorists and passengers have lost their lives in level crossing accidents. It is very difficult if not impossible for a train to stop like a motor vehicle for any object at the level crossing.

Collision involving Pedestrian

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As a collision can occur between a train and a motor vehicle, likewise pedestrians, in fact, a collision involving a pedestrian or pedestrians is more likely to result infatality.

  1. Rail Accident by Derailment

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A derailment occurs when a train leaves its tracks; better still, a derailment is

said to occur when a moving rail suddenly runs off its tracks. When a single car or coach derails, it may affect other cars and at times, you see the whole train derails completely.

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A derailment can be due to a defaulted plain track, over speed at a cross section, junction or a collision, among others.

  1. Rail Accident by other meansImage result for pictures of rail accidents

    Fire Accident

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During a railway operation, a fire accident may occur in a train, probably due to a

vehicular electrical fault, or an attack by terrorists. People sitting on top of a train

and people hanging on a moving train may also fall down. These, among other

means, are possible ways by which accidents can occur in rail transport.

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List of Causes of Rail Accident

There many factors that can cause rail accident, below are the list of some of these factors:

  1. Communication Errors
  2. Brake Rigging Defects
  3. Hand Brake Defects
  4. Other Brake Defects
  5. Over Speed
  6. Body Defects
  7. Center-Plate/Car- body Defects
  8. Wrong Use of Switches
  9. Coupler Defects
  10. Track and Structure Defects
  11. Truck Structure Defects
  12. Obstructions
  13. Side-bearing, Suspension Defects
  14. Level Crossing Collisions
  15. Bearing Failure
  16. Axle Defects
  17. Track-Train Intersection
  18. Broken Wheels
  19. Other Wheel Defects
  20. Signal Failures
  21. TOFC/COFC Defects
  22. Road-bed Defects
  23. Non-Traffic Weather Causes
  24. Loco Electrical and Fires
  25. All other Locomotive Defects
  26. Track Geometry ( excl. Wide Gauge )
  27. All Other Car Defects

 

  1. Stiff Truck
  2. Rail Defects at Bolted Joint
  3. Joint Bar Defects
  4. Broken Rails or Welds
  5. Brake Operation (Main Line)
  6. Other Rail and Joint Defects
  7. Failure to Obey/Display Signal
  8. Train Length ( Car-mile- related and train-mile- related accident)
  9. Employee Physical Condition

5 List of Design Criteria for Road Standards

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This consists of a detailed list of considerations to be used in negotiating a set of
road standards in an environment. This includes the following:
1. Resource management objectives: These indicate the reasons and
purpose a particular road should be built in a particular area. For instance,
it may have to do with the economic benefits derivable in such an area
when the expected road is constructed e.g. access to rural community for
easy transportation of agricultural produce.
2. Physical environmental factors: The topographic, climatic, soil and
vegetative characteristics of an area, the physical features of the land as
well as the type of road to be constructed and so on must be determined if
a road must be built in that area or not.
3. Environmental limitations: There are social-political limitations e.g.
erosiveness of soils, difficult geologic conditions, high rainfall. Others
include land ownership boundaries, state of the local economy and the
public opinion about the given project.
4. Traffic requirements: The average daily traffic should be estimated for
different user groups and the traffic volume will also determine the kind of
road needed in such an area.
5. Traffic service level

List of 10 Factors Responsible for Road Designs

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The volume of traffic in an area is often considered in determining the road
designs in such an area. However, such factors usually include the following:
1. Number of lanes
2. Turnout spacing
3. Lane widths
4. Type of driving surface
5. Sight distances
6. Design speed
7. Clearance
8. Horizontal and vertical alignments
9. Curve widening
10. Turn around

10 WAYS OF REDUCING ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

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Death and injury from road accidents, in some parts of the world, mostly
developing countries, are becoming a notable global problem that requires a
serious attention. For instance, in 1998, the World Bank gave an estimation of 1
million deaths from road accidents. In 2004, the World Health Day, the report
from the WHO and the World Bank showed that the number of deaths recorded
from road accidents was about 1.2 million people while 50 million people were
injured.
One may wonder why there is a high rate of road accidents in the developing
countries while in the developed countries the rate of accidents is reducing on
daily basis. In the developed countries, the traffic rules and regulations are
enforced on all motorists while in the developing countries, there is poor
implementation of the traffic rules and regulations coupled with diverse personal
issues that many people in the developing countries have to face. Such issues,
amongst others include, poverty, depression, physical illness, emotional and
financial stress. These are enormous possible factors that may force the road
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users to misbehave when making use of the road. Hence, below are 10 possible
ways of reducing road accidents on our roads:
Possible ways of reducing road accidents
1. A political will and commitment by all established organizations concerned
to deal with road traffic accidents. All law enforcement agencies must
consciously work to enforce traffic the rules and regulations on all
motorists. It must be a commitment without favoritism.
2. A careful plan involving education, engineering and enforcement to reduce
the rate of accidents
3. Transport authorities must have the same goal to reduce the high rate of
accidents and the strong passion to bring it to reality.
4. A concrete plan with specific measures for implementation and
enforcement must be made.
5. There must be a strong co-ordination within and among different levels of
government and with private actors.
6. Careful and critical evaluation of measures and their effectiveness to
achieve the desired goal.
7. There must be a road safety policy to achieve this goal.
8. The widespread nature of corruption mostly in Africa, among the
government officials e g. the Police, Vehicle Inspection Officer (VIO), etc.
must be checked.
9. Recognizing road the traffic accidents as the handiwork of man and not as a
question of fate.
10. Understanding all accidents as a result of human errors are preventable, if
there is positive change in our attitude toward road safety.

 

10 Reasons why Motorists would like to use a Particular Road

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Oftentimes, one may wonder why some motorists, especially the commercial
ones, choose to ply a particular route to carry out their daily activities, as if there
are no other routes for them to use. There are reasons why motorists will choose
and not to choose a particular route for the same journey. Hence, the saying
“there is no smoke without fire.” Also, most of their reasons are for their better
advantage. Following are the reasons why drivers choose a particular route for
their journey:
1. Speed: This is the rate at which a vehicle travels. Most drivers like to drive
their vehicle at a particular speed convenient and safer for them.

2. Travel time: The time at which a driver, mostly a commercial driver, uses to
complete a particular journey matters a lot. The route that is full of
different obstructions that may cause unnecessary delay, thereby
increasing the driver’s travel time will not encourage many motorists to ply
such a route.
3. Traffic interruption: Anything that interrupts will discourage the motorists
to continue to ply such a route if there is a better alternative.
4. Freedom to maneuver: Drivers will prefer a wide route that will enable
them to move their cars easily and carefully probably to overtake or to
avoid accidents. Therefore, a road that is very tiny or narrow to maneuver
will discourage them.
5. Safety: A road must be free enough from any form of danger, otherwise
both the drivers and the passengers would be discouraged to travel on such
a road.
6. Driver’s comfort: When a driver travels on a long journey and throughout
the journey he feels less worry and more importantly, he feels safe
travelling on such a road, undeniably he will be eager to travel again on the
road.
7. Convenience: When you drive on a good road, the time and the stress you
would have encountered if you are on a bad road would be reduced.
8. Operating cost: Every transport service provider is expected to have
practical and economical mindset to manage his business. He must be able
to choose the routes that are cost-effective for his business.
9. Business orientation: No commercial vehicle driver will hesitate to travel
on a route where he can easily get goods and passengers to carry. Since his
business is to carry goods and passengers for economic gain, then it will be
unwise of him to abandon a route where his desire can be met.
10. Inevitable route: Every motorist going to their offices and houses will have
no choice but to pass through the road that leads to their houses and
offices.

10 The Most Notable Shipwrecks in the World

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A shipwreck

1. RMS TITANIC
RMS Titanic is one of the popular shipwrecks in the world history. It was an
ocean liner said to be unsinkable but later proved to be most notable sinkable
ship in the world. In 1912, precisely on April 10, the ship was on a journey. 4
days as the journey progressed, precisely on April 14, 1912, the ship suddenly
hit an iceberg just before the midnight and the ship sank less than 3 hours,
killing 1,514 lives.
However, in 1985, a Franco-American expedition discovered the ship and
found that the ship split into 2 parts, each part lying about a 3 rd of a mile from
each other.
2. RMS REPUBLIC
RMS Republic was built 1903 and sank on January 24, 1909 at about
8:40p.m. 6 lives were said to be lost in that incident. The bad incident
occurred in 1909, on January 23 rd , when the ship collided with the Lloyd
Italiano liner SS Florida and the ship sank at about 8:40 p.m. on the said
day.
3. RMS LUSITANIA
RMS Lusitania started operation in 1906 and it sank on May 7 th , 1915. 1,
191 lives were said to be lost in that incident. It was said that the shipwreck
was caused by a German U-boat.
4. USS ARIZONA
USS Arizona was specially built for the US Navy in1915. It was bombed by
the Japanese on December 7 th , 1941. It was said that 1, 177 crew members
and officers were killed in the incident.
On the 5 th of May, the shipwreck became National Historic Landmark in the
US and the remains, known as USS Arizona Memorial, are viewable in the
US.
5. THE MARY ROSE
It was a Tudor warship used during the reign of Henry VIII and it was
used in many battles against France, Britain and Scotland and it was
sunk during a battle against French.
6. VASA
It was a Swedish warship, believed to have been built between 1626
and 1628. It sank on the 10 th of August, 1628, after being hit by
strong winds and flooding, sinking 20 minutes and less than a mile
into its journey.
7. THE ANNE’S REVENGE
It was an 18 th century warship popularly known as the ship of the
legendary pirate Blackbeard. It used the ship less than a year with
greatest achievement during this short period of time.
8. MV DONA PAZ
MV Dona Paz is referred to as the deadliest of all peacetime maritime
disasters. In December 20 th , 1987, the Philippine registered ferry with
over 4,000 passengers collided with an oil tanker MT Vector resulting
into fire accident killing an estimated number of 4, 386 passengers
and there were only 24 survivors.
It took 8 hours for Philippine maritime authorities to hear of the
incident due to poor communication equipment. However, because
of the fatal incident, it is referred to as ‘Asia’s Titanic’
9. THE BLACK SWAN
It is a Spanish war ship known as Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes.
The warship sank in 1804 off Portugal territorial waters. However, in
2007 an American Company, Odyssey Marine Exploitation,
discovered gold, worth of $500 million.
However, the Spanish government made it known to be the rightful
owner of the said gold, hence the case was decided in the US
Supreme Court, and the court ordered the gold should be returned
to Spanish authorities.
10. MS WORLD DISCOVERER
It was a Danish cruise ship manufactured in 1974. The disaster
occurred when the ship struck a rock at the Solomon Islands; all the
passengers survived the incident.

Road Safety Policy and its Significant Role

What is Safety?
Safety, as it were, means freedom from danger; it is a state of being safe. Hence,
to ensure there is safety, different things or objects may be used as parts of safety
measures such as human, sign, symbol, education, advertisement, weapon to
mention but a few.

What is Road Safety?
Road safety involves all activities engaged to make all the road users free from
danger. It can also be defined as those measures and methods put in place to
protect all road users from being injured or killed while making use of the road.
However, the road safety of every road user must be the utmost importance of all
the levels of government; hence, the need to implement the road safety policy
that will protect the life of all road users is inevitable. It is the responsibility of all
concerned, in different countries, to enforce the road safety rules and regulations.
In addition, improving road safety in any given environment will surely involve the
following sectors: transportation, health care, emergency service, law
enforcement and education. This 5 agents must be active and ready at all time to
rise up to the task.
It is also good for transport authorities to set a target. Road safety target should
be understandable, cost-effective, monitored, realistic and achievable.
What is Policy?
It is the set of principles and guidelines adopted to achieve the organizational
goal.

What is a road safety policy?
It is a set of principles and guidelines formulated to improve the safety of all road
users. It is the statement of various steps to be taken-over to achieve the
envisaged targets set in this field of transport to tackle identified safety issues or
problems. In simple language, it is the wisdom and method of action to guide and
determine both the present and the future affairs of safety in road transportation.

A good road safety policy is meant to look into the different risks associated with
road transport and provide solutions to eliminate all the risks. It is the one that
ensures risks of injuries and deaths are low and manageable.
However, it should be noted that proper planning is important to achieve the
road safety goals. Hence, the road safety plan must contain a vision statement,
policy guidelines, strategies and specific actions to be taken.
High rate of deaths and injuries on public roads are not a fundamental law of
nature as many people assume. Many people believe it is fate for someone to be
injured or die in a road accident. I humbly and firmly wish to let you know that
most accidents on our roads are caused by human errors and that most accidents
we see are avoidable accidents.
All that is needed to eliminate risks or to reduce high rate of deaths and injuries
on our roads is the road safety policy and strong commitment by concerned
institutions to implement the policy. However, examples of countries that have
been successful in improving their road safety are: Sweden, New Zealand,
Netherland and Japan, amongst others. They are able to achieve this feat as a
result of their strong road safety policies as well as strong commitment to
implement them.

10 Common mistakes by new drivers

Related imageSitting on the driver’s seat for the first time to drive the vehicle alone may excite a new driver but it’s not an easy task for him. Such a new driver is likely to be nervous and fearful while driving.Also, such a driver is likely to be over conscious not to hit any object or being hit by other drivers. These, among others, are the predictable misbehavior of new drivers.However, below are the common mistakes of a typical new driver on the road:

  1. Inferiority Complex: Often times, they drive under pressure. Why? It is because they think other experienced drivers on the road are better than they are.Hence, consciously or unconsciously, they become anxious to the point of making several mistakes while driving.
  2. Panic or fear:At times, they feel they are very conscious while driving but in the real sense, they are panicky.As a result, often times, you see them stopping suddenly on the road causing unnecessary traffic delays.
  3. Poor understanding of the Traffic rules and Regulations: One of the qualities of a good professional driver is the ability to interpret and understand the traffic rules and regulations. In fact, they are one of the ways to drive safe on the road.The difference between a driver and a man who moves the vehicle on the public road is proper understanding of the traffic rules and regulations.
  4. Poor Routine Checks: Failure to carry out daily routine checks such as engine oil, brake oil, battery terminal, light operations to mention but a few, before driving behind the wheel is part of typical new drivers’ mistakes.
  5. Lack of Basic safety information: This is common to those that did not attend a driving school before starting to move the vehicle on the road.They lack safety information to make the road safe such as why they need to equip their vehicle with a functional horn; when and how to join the road; when to brake and accelerate and so on.
  6. Poor Reverse: New drivers often find it difficult, if not impossible, to reverse the vehicle easily without being assisted, otherwise they hit their vehicles on any object behind them.
  7. Failure to keep proper distance from the vehicle in front while driving
  8. Sometimes new drivers forget to use the traffic indicator lights when turning or moving out of the lane.
  9. Failure to use inner mirror when necessary.
  10. In a bid to avoid the danger of being involved in an accident, some new drivers tend to drive too slowly for the road condition, which thereby affects the easy flow of traffic.

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