Railway transportation is one of the transport modes that suitable for large transportation of people and cargos over a long distance. It is efficient and cheap in carrying a large number of people and goods more than any other overland transports. These important qualities make it more relevant and preferable in overland transport. Therefore, I think it is important to talk about the manufacturers of rail vehicles in the world. Here below the leading rail-manufacturer companies in the world:
Bombardier: This is the number one leading manufacturer company of rail-vehicles. It is a Canadian company that was established in 1940s; and ii 19 70s the company engaged in rail business and the headquarters of the company transportation division is located in Germany. However, the company has not less than 59 production and engineering sites and 20 service centers in 25 countries. It is interesting to know that over 100,000 rail- vehicles and 2,500 trams and light rail-vehicles produced by Bombardier Company are used throughout the world. In addition, the company also supplied more than 3,000 sub-way cars to the United Kingdom, China and India. More so, the company is the major provider of commuter and regional trains in France and Germany. It is also interesting to know that Bombardier Company and Alstom Company built Amatrak’s Acela Express. Indeed, Bombardier is the largest rail-vehicle manufacturer in the world.
Alstom: Alstom is the 2nd largest rail-vehicles manufacturer company that was established in 1928, and started to manufacture rail-vehicles in 1932, and its headquarters is located in France. The company built over 400 TGVs that are used in France while another over 640 in used throughout the world. In addition, the company built another faster rail-vehicle 2008, knows as AGVs with a high speed of 225 miles per hour. However, it is important to note that Alstom tops the global market for very high speed rail-vehicles. It is the second largest manufacturer of tram and subway vehicles in the world.
Siemens: it’s a German company that was established in 1847. The company with Bombardier’s Adtranz manufacture high speed train knows as ICE 2, it also, supplied a quite number of ICE 3 trains to some countries which are Germany, Austria, Netherlands, Spain, Russia and China. The company has made a good history in Shanghai by designing and building the Maglev train which is the only railway system in operation till date.
Kawasaki and other Japanese companies: these Japanese companies that specialize in rail manufacturing are among the big companies in Japan. It’s worthy to note that the rail division of Kawasaki firms has manufactured over 90,000 rail vehicles since 1906. Each rail manufacturer company in Japan can design and build slower-speed trains while high-speed trains are design and build in collaboration with other rail manufacturers which are Nippon Sharyo, Hitachi, Kawasaki, Kinki Sharyo, Mitsubishi, and Tokyo Car Corp. However, some countries have placed order for Japanese train the countries include Taiwan, China, India and United Kingdom.
China South Locomotive and Rolling Stock (CSR) and China Northern Locomotive and Rolling Stock (CNR): These 2 china’s companies were established in 2001. The CSR specialized in producing electric locomotives, high-speed electrical multiple units (EMUs), and certain types of subway vehicles. However, CNR specialized in producing diesel locomotives, very-high speed (EMUs) and certain types of subway vehicles. However, both companies manufacture high speed rail in collaboration with the leading international rail manufacturers.
These are the rail manufacturing companies that produce many rail vehicles that are used in the world today. The existence of these manufacturing companies is a boost to rail transport operation in the world.
Sourcecredited to:Global Competitiveness in the Rail and Transit Industry by: Michael Renner and Gary Gardner.
Vehicles need periodic maintenance in order to make them function very well and to ensure easy drivability and safe driving experience. To achieve these benefits, driver’s daily maintenance check is inevitable. It is the first step to prevent your car from killing you.
Poor maintenance of vehicle such as under inflated tires, engine defect, brake defect and so on will consume more fuel than the vehicle in good conditions; more so, daily maintenance inspections by the drivers help to reduce maintenance cost and to avoid unnecessary failure at the road side, daily vehicle inspections also increase the vehicle safety and reduce the high risk of accidents on our roads. These among others are the reasons why driver’s daily check on the vehicle must be done.
However, the driver’s maintenance check can be done in the following ways:
Drivers are supposed to inspecting their vehicles before and after daily operations. And any defect discovered during the inspections that can cause more damage to the vehicle or render it unsafe on the road must be corrected with immediate alacrity.
In order to ensure the safety of road users the following check must be done often or on weekly basis: tire condition and air pressure, any kind of leaks, engine oil level, all belts, all hoses, radiator coolant level, battery fluid level, hydraulic oil level, transmission on level lights / signal, fuel, and windshield water fluid level.
Also on daily basis when the vehicle engine is switch on drivers must also check the following: all gauge brakes before moving, windshield wipers and the horn must be check.
The drivers must also ensure that the interior and the exterior of the vehicle are clean and drivers must also ensure that the vehicle is washed when necessary in order to maintain a good appearance.
It is important to note that, it’s the responsibility of the driver to consult the vehicle owner or the fleet manager (in case if the driver works in a company) on repairs and preventive maintenance of the vehicle, and it is the responsibility of the fleet manager to ensure that all the necessary preventative maintenance are performed on schedule and the vehicles are also serviced in a timely manner when notified. However, all drivers must know how to handle unscheduled emergency repairs.
Nevertheless, if your vehicle is properly maintained, you will have no reason to question the reliability of your car and more importantly you will have peace of mind that you are driving a safe and efficient vehicle. A good maintenance of your car is the best way to prevent your car from killing you.
What is fleet management?
Fleet management is a complete management of a company fleet of vehicles. It is meant to cover all aspects of a vehicle life span, i.e. from procurement to the point of disposal.
Fleet management is important to any entrepreneur or a group of people that relies majorly on transportation in their normal business activities. This is because it will enable them to eradicate or minimize the risk that is associated with their transport businesses. Fleet management will enable the company to improve the efficiency and productivity while reducing the total transportation and staff cost. It also ensures high rate of compliance with the law. However, other benefits of fleet management to an organization include the following:
It increases the profit of the company.
It enhances the brand image of the firm.
It also, ensures operations reliability by strengthening the drivers’ skills and reducing the vehicle downtime, thereby, providing standard and quality services for its customers.
It also, keeps and provides proper documentation of the vehicle fleet.
It can also monitoring fleet operations for the firm, this is the utmost basic function in all fleet management system. This has to do with the vehicle tracking component which is usually GPS based.
Who is a fleet manager?
A fleet manager is a person responsible for planning, directing, managing, coordinating and supervising programs for acquisition, assignment, utilization, maintenance, repair, replacement and disposal of fleet vehicles,
However, to achieve maximum fleet operations, it is important for the manager to have a comprehensive and cohesive set of associated parameters that designate whether to retain or eliminate each vehicle or whether it falls into a questionable category that requires further research or maintenance.
He must also ensures that most efficient vehicles are assigned to operations, however, in case, there are other transport operations that must be carried out after the most efficient vehicles have been fully allocated for operations, then the fleet manager is expected to shift to most efficient alternative.
The fleet manager also needs to prepare maintenance schedules for all types of vehicles used for transport operations and he must ensure that the maintenance schedules are strictly adhere to.
He must also ensure or allow adequate and consistent safety inspections, to be carried out on various types of vehicles used for transport operations on weekly, monthly, quarterly and annual bases. He may also, appoint fleet inspection officer who will perform the inspections and explain to him what to do in case of exception to these safety inspections. The manager is also expected to design safety documentations required on the fleet.
In conclusion, fleet management is highly important, most especially to those that rely on transportation in their businesses and those that provide transport services and more importantly, it is one of the major factors to enhance road safety.
Maritime transport is very important to any nation in the world; it plays an important role in international and domestic trade. Hence, absence of this transport mode in a country will surely bring negative effects on its economy. Moreover, water transportation also plays an important role to compliment other modes of transport such as rail, road and air transport. Its capacity to carry heavy cargoes at less expensive cost makes other modes of transport and their infrastructures not to be overstretched. However, 6 major importance of maritime transportation are here below:
It promotes trade and commerce: sea transportation supports the domestic economy through importation of raw materials and equipments or machines used by manufacturers. This is an important role it plays in the economy of any nation.
It creates revenue and availability of finance: sea port transport generates a lot of money to the nation; it is a viable source of income that cannot be overlooked or undermined. For instance, in Nigeria, the Nigeria Sea Port source of revenue among others include, fees from registration of ship and mortgages, custom duties, port charges and tariffs realized by the Nigeria corporate taxes from shipping companies, fees for licensing and forward agents, registration of shipping and companies and so on.
It develops economic related activities: sea port transport aids the growth of some industries which are purposely established because of maritime transport, such industries are associated to maritime industry, e.g. Shipbuilding Company, logistics, etc.
Banks may also be interested in financing shipping companies or acquisition of vessels. All of these are economic related activities to maritime industry.
It creates employment opportunities: maritime transport plays important roles in economy of a nation because it creates employment opportunities for jobless people, thereby reducing social problems that can be caused by unemployment. Hence, the saying an idle hand is a devil workshop.
It enhances industrial growth and development: it is important to note that some entrepreneurs prefer to locate their firms near seaport in order reduce the high cost of transportation and to enhance ease accessibility to raw materials.
A thumb is the short tick finger that is located at the side of your hand. It is a strong finger that supports other fingers to function very well. More also, a thumb has natural capacity or endowment to touch other fingers. No any other finger has this endowment; in other words, no any finger can easily touch other fingers except the thumb, this shows why thumb is most unique finger among its equals.
However, in our contemporary world I have discovered that transport is that thumb that touches other fingers. It is a desirable element in life for all. No individual, organization or a nation can do without transport. Transport is relevant to all aspect of human life. It is important to health care, education, economy, tourism, just to mention a few. In fact, it is the most desirable essential element that has no barrier to any aspect or activity on earth. For example, a sick man or patient will not consult a veterinary doctor for treatment likewise a human doctor will not prescribe drugs for animals, even though both of them are trained to save lives in medicine one is to save the life of an animal and the other to save human life and by profession they are not meant to cross their boundaries. In other words, their disciplines have a barrier or a limit, but transport is not so, it is relevant to all, either animal or man. For instance, if an animal e.g. a dog is made to walk from one place to another in order to get a treatment from a veterinary doctor and a man also walks into an hospital to see a doctor, do you know that both of them have engaged in transport? Walking is also a form of transport and it is the oldest form of transport on earth. Therefore, no any living creature or organism e.g. man or animal that can do without transport. It is through transport they can access to other opportunities, like education, employment, health care, etc.
However, for more understanding let us examine the importance of transportation to some aspect of human endeavors;
To the Manufacturer or Producer: It is the major element that links the factors of production together. It also improves the relationship between the producers and its final consumers. Therefore, transport to the manufacturers is inevitable.
To the Farmer: The easy evacuation of agric produce and accessible of items needed in a farm land such as tractor, fertilizer, etc., are made possible through efficient transportation.
To the Health Care Delivery: Through transportation health centers can be easily accessible by patients. Even in the case of emergency, transport plays an important role in providing fast or just-in-time transport service to the victim, hence, it contributes to the better health delivery. In other words, transport also supports life.
In Tourism Industry: Transport is the most desirable element in tourism, without transport tourism industry will be a daydream or a mirage.
To the Economy: Without any element of doubt, efficient transport is a vital component of economic development both nationally and globally.
To a Nation: It is a noticeable linkage that links or connects different parts of a country together and a global world at large. To a new community site: Transport is important to create a sustainable environment in a new community site. Transport cannot be overemphasized in the early stage of a new community. Absence of transport alone can affect the well-being of the whole community and may also lead to long term financial and social cost.
In conclusion, since, transport support all aspect of human endeavors be it political, social, education, to mention but a few, hence, it can be rightly construe that transport is a thumb that touches other fingers.
One major reason for maintaining proper tire pressure is to increase your safety and safety of other road users on the road. Proper tire pressure will certainly, improve your vehicle’s handling; decrease tire wear; reduce braking distance; increase water dispersion while decreases the possibility of hydroplaning; reduce rolling resistance, i.e. the force require to roll a loaded tire and enhance fuel economy. Keeping correct air pressure in your tires helps your tire to last longer and to be safer on the road. These explain why TPMS sensor is important in your car.
TPMS means Tire Pressure Monitoring system and it is developed to alert the drivers or motorists when the air pressure in their vehicle’s tire is too low or dropped below the manufacturer recommended level that could create unsafe driving conditions.
TPMS alerts you if your tire is under-inflated or overinflated. TPMS indicator is usually located on the dashboard. It is designed like horseshoe-shape with an exclamation point in the center. Once the TPMS illuminates on the dashboard, all you need to do at first is to check your tire pressures with a gauge to determine the tire that needed air pressure.
How to read a TPMS warning light with meaning
When the light turns on and stays on while driving: it means one or more of the tires are under-inflated you need to check all the tires in order to determine the under-inflated tire and add the correct air pressure.
When the light turns on and off: this probably happen when the temperature or the heat builds up from driving a vehicle fluctuates.
When the light blinks or flashes for about 60 to 90 seconds when you start your car and later stays on: it means the Tire Pressure monitoring System is faulty all you need to do is to visit a service centre with your car to correct the fault.
The system may be set to give warning below the tire pressure needed to carry the load in the vehicle.
A time the sensor may not be able to give an accurate tire pressure data to the on-board computer.
The system may not be able to correctly determine if one tire is too low than the other.
The system may also not be able to correctly determine whether the tires are losing air pressure at the same rate.
In view of these limitations it means TPMS is not a replacement for regular tire pressure checks. Therefore, it should be part of your responsibility as a car owner to check once in a month and before a long trip and when carrying heavy load.
Logistics is an important factor that contributes to the progress of many organizations around the world. Logistics provides viable supports to enhance the smooth productivities of many organizations. One of the ways among others to increase the productivity of any organization is to engage the service of reputable logistics firm. Logistics provides auxiliary support to an organization the areas of: materials handling, production, packaging, inventory, transportation, ware housing, and often security. These services are needed for any organization to excel in a competitive world. However, here below are the lists of 10 top logistics firms around the world. The ranking is based on the income of each company.
DHL Logistics: DHL is the number one on the list and one of the international logistics firm from Germany known as Deutsche Post. DHL provides services throughout the world on 4 major areas which are: (a) DHL Express (b) DHL Global Forwarding and (d) DHL Supply Chain. It is also important to note that many people prefer to send their urgent document and goods through DHL because of its efficiency, reliability and door-to-door quick delivery. The company has 325, 000 workers and its revenue in 2014 is $61, 830. 90m.
UPS: The number 2 on the table is UPS. It started its operation as a logistics firm in 19 07, in USA by James Casey. The annual revenue is $58, 232m.
FedEx: in 1971, the company started as Federal Express in US. It has 325,000 workers throughout the world. the company revenue is $45, 567m.
SNCF: Is the French National Railways Company. The full meaning of NSCF is Societe National des Chemins de for Francais. The headquarters of the company is located in Monaco France. It is a state owned company that has 43,000 employees and its revenue is $30, 453. 6m.
Kahn + Nagel: This company was established by August Kuehne and Friedrich Nagel in 1890 in Bremen Germany. The company is number 1 best sea freight forwarder and 2nd best cargo forwarder in the world. The company has more than 63, 000 in over 100 countries and its revenue is $ 22, 530. 64m.
DB Schenter: It is a strong logistics firm and it has 2 major areas which are DB Logistics and DB Red. The company has over 2,000 locations and 95, 700, workers. The company is so viable to the extent that it maintains 32,000 regular schedule services in overland transportation per week and in air transportation, the air freight is not less than 1,200 of its own chartered planes per year. The revenue is $19. 800m.
Nippon Express: It is a Japanese company that was established in 1937. The company has 29 areas of operation and it serves the following regions viz: America; Middle East; Africa; East Asia; South and South East Asia; Oceania and Japan. The staff strength is about 33, 153 workers. Revenue is $14, 061m.
H. Robison: The company was established in 1905. The company carries out its operations 4 areas which are North America, South Africa, Europe and Asia. The logistics firm associates with 66,000 transport providers in order to boost its operations. The revenue is $13, 470. 07m.
Panalpina: The logistics company was established in 1935. The logistics firm has not less than 500 offices in 70 countries. However, the core values of the firm are performance, integrity and professionalism.
CEVA: It is full service transportation and logistics firm that fully provides freight management and contact logistics at 950 locations. Its revenue is $7, 864m.
OR Tambo International Air Port, Johannesburg. South Africa.
The air port tops the list of best air port in Africa. It handles more than 17 million passengers every year. However, the recent upgrade infrastructure of the air port enables it to handle up to 28 million passengers yearly.
Cape Town International Air Port, Cape Town, South Africa.
It is capable to handles 14 million passengers annually.
King Shaka International Air Port, Durban, South Africa.
It handles up to 5 million passengers every year. The port is also known as La Mercy Air Port.
Cairo International Air Port, Cairo, Egypt.
It is the largest and the second busiest air port in Africa.
Hurghada International Air Port, Hurghada Egypt.
Sharam El-Sheikh International Air Port.
It handles up to 10 million passengers annually.
Muhammed V International Air Port, Casablanca Morocco.
The air port handles up to 7.5 million passengers in every year.
Murtala Muhammed International Air Port, Lagos. Nigeria.
It is the largest air port in the country and it handles over 6 million passengers.
Jomo Kenyatta international Air Port. Nairobi, Kenya.
It is the Kenya largest air port and the busiest eastern and central African region. It handle more than 5 million passengers annually.
Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
It handles more than 1 million every year and over 800 tones of cargoe.
In virtually every year over 130 children die while more than 4,500 kids are seriously injured while using the road in UK. Source: childalert.
Since, children are also part of the road users then, you need to foster a culture of safe and courteous road use in them. To allow them to use the road they need to have good road sense and being road smart, these explain why you need to teach your kids how to be a safe road users.
However, it is not about teaching them alone you also need to lay down a good example for them to see and follow; this is because children learn fast from their parents or adult.
Good road sense may not come to them naturally as expected, therefore, here are some tips you need to teach them:
Whenever you want to cross the road with your children always choose a safe point for them and take time to tell the reason why you choose a safe point.
Make it known to them that it is safer to cross the road at zebra-crossing.
Warn them not to cross the road if they cannot see far on the road.
Warn them not to cross the road in between parked vehicles because the vehicle may start moving and the driver may find it difficult to see them very well.
Tell them that whenever they are crossing the road, they should walk straight across the road and keep look and listening out for traffic.
Make it known to them that they must wait for vehicles from both directions to stop before crossing the road.
Also make it known to them that if a road is separated with an island in the middle or median, each road must be treated separately.
You need to also tell them to watch out for cyclists and motorcyclists whenever they are on the road.
Teach them to be used foot path where possible.
Always hold your child’s hand when you are crossing or walking on the road.
Transport is important to the life of individual and to any given organization. No individual or any organization can do without it. It is an inevitable element for all. In fact, the importance of transport cannot be over emphasized in the society at large.
Since, it is generally believed that transport is important in our society and it plays a key role in the nation’s economy of any country, then I also think, it is more important to talk about those that even need it more than us in our society.
Most of the time I see a disabled man on the street struggle for mobility, I do have sympathy for them, I do imagine that if government can provide special public transport that is avoidable and convenience for disabled people their struggle for mobility will be over or lesser.
Inequality in a Wrong Priority
Often the time I hear most people talking or debating about gender inequality, they are so passionate about gender equality, while nobody or very few people talk about inequality we show to people with disability in the society. I imagine, if many people that talk about gender inequality are in their shoes how will they feel, as a person? Will they be still talking about equality for those that have eyes to see; those that have legs to walk; those that have hands to work and more importantly, those that have better opportunities to be successful in life, than a mere handicapped on the street begging for help, this is one of the ways which inequality may be more meaningful to me. I think inequality as it were, can be understood, better if we can imagine the discrimination that the disabled people are facing in our society. I am not actually against gender equality, but I think there is more important issue we need to talk about than gender equality and until this inequality we show to disabled people in our society is fully addressed especially in the area of transportation, campaigning for gender equality may be nothing than a self centered and a myopic priority. If transport problem for disabled people can be solved, then it means more than half of their problems in life have been solved. With this as an individual, debating for gender equality will be meaningful than it is now.
Disabled people rely mostly on transport.
Do you know that people with disability use public transport even more than the general public? In other words, disabled people rely more on transportation for their mobility than the general public. But it is a pity and very unfortunate that special public transport they needed is not always available for them. They are denied of their civil right and equal opportunity in their own country. Many of them in some part of the world surfer for lacked of affordable and reliable special public transport they needed to access important opportunities in education, employment, health care, housing, to mention but a few, and we are making noise publicly about gender inequality, what other inequality do we need to eradicate that is more important than this in our society, lack of genuine feeling or sympathy for people with disability make people to ignore them in their own community.
However, since the disabled people rely more on transport for their mobility, government at any level should rise up to the task by providing special public transport for disabled people in our society. They are fellow citizen like us and they deserve the special buses or vehicles that are accessible by wheelchair. Special bus stop that can be easily accessible by wheelchair can also be located in different part of the city for them.
Since we know that government belongs to all, then special public transport for handicapped is a right and a desirable government responsibility.
Problems are inevitable; they seem so natural or bound to happen. One of such is the lack of special public transport for disabled people in their own countries.With what I have seen so far in my country or better still, what I’ve discovered is that, the majority of disabled people hardly leave their homes because of transport difficulties they faced in the society. This is one of their major frustrations.
Why disabled people have to face transport problem for so long in their countries is because they are not fully considered in the community. Those who are supposed to meet their transport needs are not ready to shoulder the responsibility. As a result of this, transportation choice for disabled people is almost zero or extremely limited in their own countries.
3 Major Reasons why Disabled People have to face Transport problem in their Community
Disabled people are not included in policy making in their countries hence, they are not fully considered.
In most countries disabled people are not part of the policy makers hence; it may be difficult if not impossible for people who do not have better understanding or experience of what a disabled man is passing through to make a better policy that will positively affect the lives of disabled people. He who wears the shoe knows where the shoe pitches him or her, says an adage. Since, people with disability are not fully involved in policy making hence the transport problem for disabled will remain unsolved.
“What an old man seats down to see a young boy cannot stand up to see it even, if he climbs the highest tree in the village”, says an African adage. Since, disabled are not part of the policy making in their different countries it will be difficult for the policy makers to tackle the transport problem facing the handicapped properly even, if the policy makers are made the presidents or prime ministers of their countries yet, they will still not see far more than what a disabled man can see to tackle his own transport problems. Therefore, handicapped should be allowed to take part in policy making. Why? It is because he who wears the shoe knows better where the shoe pitches him or her. It is advisable and even better to allow those that have better experience of what it means to be a handicapped to suggest on how their transport problems should be tackled by allowing them to take part in policy making. Hence, the saying “experience is the best teacher”.
In most countries, governments and transport providers do not consider transport needs for disabled people.
In addition, in some countries governments at different levels and transport providers do not consider it necessary to provide special transport for disabled people, due to this reason; transportation problem becomes the major problem for disabled people in their own countries. For instance, it is uncommon to see any public vehicle or bus run by governments or private individual that is accessible by wheelchair in my country. It is also difficult to see any bus stop designed for handicapped or that can be accessible by wheelchair. I also think the same thing happen in other countries especially in African countries. Why? It is because governments and transport providers in different countries do not think carefully about the transport needs for the handicapped. What a pity!
In my country I’ve seen government at different levels e.g. Federal, state and local government establishing a transport company for the public, but I hardly see a transport company that is established for disabled, either by the governments or private individual. This is a great inequality. One of the benefits of public transport is that, it supports social justice; this means that public transport should be made available and affordable for all kind of people in the society, rich, poor or handicapped. In view of this, it is wrong for both the governments and transport providers not to consider the transport needs for disabled people in their societies. Hence, the saying, 2 wrong things can never make a right. Governments and individual transport provider are expected to consider the transport needs for the disabled by providing public transport that is efficient, affordable and accessible.
It is important to note that if the best transport policy is made in order to tackle the transport challenges of disabled people, poor administration or implementation of such policy will play a setback in the wheel of progress, therefore, putting the hope for, better transport service for, disabled people in a great mirage. In short, the transport problem for disabled cannot be solved if the implementation or administration is poor.
Good administration and proper implementation are required to tackle or solve the transport problem for disabled people.
You must know the tire in your car. In fact, you are at risk if you don’t know the tires that move you around, l personally asked some drivers or motorist two or more questions about their car tires but, their response to my questions show to me that their car tires may put them at risk or bring to them untimely death.
It is unfortunate that most drivers don’t have any vital information on the round black objects that move them around. Such motorists or drivers may pose a high risk on themselves and other road users that is why it is important for you as a motorist to know much about the tires on your car. Here is some of the important information you need to know:
M/S; M+S; MS or M&S:When you see any of these letters on your tire it means such tire has the ability to move your vehicle on a snow and muddy area, with these letters on your tires show that the tires meet the Rubber Manufacture Association guidelines for mud and snow tire.
The Tire Width:235 is the width of a tire measure in millimeters (mm). It is usually measure from sidewall to sidewall. However, the measurement is determined by the size of the rim.
The Tire Aspect Ratio:Aspect ratio is a number that shows the height of the tire from the head to the top of the tread. This is always expressed in percentage of the width. For example, if the aspect ratio of a tire is 75 then the height of the tire is 75% of the given width i.e. (7 5×235/100) =176.25mm. Therefore, the aspect ratio is 175.25mm; hence, the smaller the aspect ratio the wider the tire in relation to is height.
The Tire Traction:Tire traction is usually rated as AA; A; B or C. AA is the highest grade in the rating follow by A, B and C respectively. This rating base on the tire ability to stop a car on wet concrete or asphalt, however, when you see a tire carrying any of these letters on its sidewall, it is simply, showing the tire traction ability of the tire. It is usually written like this on the tire Traction AA; Traction A; Traction B or Traction
C.Temperature:The tire temperature rating is a measure of how well the tire dissipates heat and how well it handles the buildup of heat. The temperature grade is applied to a properly inflated tire that is not over loaded. However, overloading, under inflation or excessive speed are all notable factors that can make your tire to build up heat and excessive heat build up on your tire can cause your tire to wear out faster and it may even lead to tire failure. It is important to note that, tire temperature is usually rated as A, B or C. So when you check the side wall of your tire and you see any of these following: Temperature A or Temperature B or Temperature C. It simply shows you the temperature ability of the tire.
The Tread Wear:First and foremost, please note that the higher the tread wear number the longer you can expect the tread to last. Before the tread numbers can be generated, the tire must be tested in controlled conditions on government test track. However, since no one will be expected to drive his or her own car
on exactly, the same surface at the same speed as the government testing track then, the numbers are not accurate indicator of how long your tread will actually last, but it is a good relative measure, therefore you can expect the tire that carries or has lager number to last longer than the one with smaller number. However, the tread wear number is usually written on the tire side wall like this: Tread wear 440 etc.
Service Description:The service description of a tire consists of two major areas which are Load rating and Speed rating.
Load Rating: This is also a number correlates to the maximum load rated for the tire. It shows to us the maximum Kg that a tire can carry. Therefore, a higher number means that the tire has the higher loading capacity. Nevertheless, a separate note on the tire usually written after the loading rating indicates the loading rating of your tire at a given inflation pressure. E.g.
Max. Load 880 kg
(35-psi) Max. Press. Standard load
This is an example of how the load rating and the recommended air pressure are written on your tires.
Speed Rating: The letter that follows the load rating indicates the maximum speed allowable for such tire as long as the weight is at or below the rated load. For instance, letter S indicates that the tire can handle speed up to 112 mph i.e. (180.246 kph).
The Tire Manufacturing Date:Whenever you want to buy or get a new tire, one of the first things you need to consider or look for is the manufacturing date of the tire you want to buy. This is because a tire is expected to expire after six (6) of its production or manufacturing date. It does not matter whether such tire is used or not, a tire expires after six (6) year of production. Why? It is because tires deteriorate naturally day after day and at the expiration of six (6) years the quality of such tires must have reduced drastically. Hence, it is possible to buy a brand new tire that has not been used before which is indeed an expired tire from the store or seller, that is why you need to check the manufacturing date of the tire before buying it.
How to Check a Tire Manufacturing Date:If you do not know how to check the date from the sidewall of a tire you may end up buying an expired tire. However, the tire manufacturing date is usually different from the common way we are used to write date of an event. For example the date is usually written like this (1012) or (1314) or (3613) etc. However, it is important to note that the first two (2) figures refer to the week of production while the last two (2) figures refer to the year of production. For instance, (1012) means 10th (tenth) week of the year 2012, (3613) means 36th week of the year 2013, etc. Therefore, if the manufacturing date of a tire is (1314) such tire is expected to expire after six (6) years of the said date which is (1320).
Recently in the month of August, 2015, a student of one of the higher institutions in Ibadan city, Oyo state, Nigeria, was knocked down by a vehicle on his way to campus. I learned that this was not the first incident in the area. One of the students of the school told me that the victim was the only son and the only child of the family. What a pity!
However, when I visited the area of the incident, I discovered that the campus is located beside an expressway (a busy road) that links two states together in the country and I also, discovered that the road lacks the necessary desirable safety facilities for pedestrians. For more understanding, the following are the conditions of the said road:
No any pedestrian footpaths for the students,
No traffic island or median divider between opposite direction traffic in order to reduce the head collision between two vehicles in the area,
No any traffic sign or signal for motorists or road users, and
No single bond in the front of the campus to limit or reduce the speed of those drivers who think speed limit is just a mere suggestion.
No zebra-crossing for the students, therefore, most students end up crossing the road at will.
However, it is important to note that, the risk of pedestrians is high when they share the same road with vehicles traveling at a fast speeds. This explains why the student was knocked down by a vehicle. Since the road lacks necessary safety facilities for pedestrians, I wonder if such ugly incident will not repeat itself again.
According to National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration (NHTSA), estimated that total pedestrian death in U.S was 4, 432 in 2011. In the same year it was estimated that 69, 000 pedestrians were injured while 11,000 of those injured were age 14 and younger (NHTSA).
According to the WHO reports in 2010, road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among young people.
A report also shows that more than 57% pedestrians in 4 cities were killed in South Africa. Another report also shows that roads in low and middle income countries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America revealed that 84% of the roads surveyed had no pedestrian footpaths though they carried motor vehicle traffic moving at 40km/h or more.
Pedestrian and Pedestrianization defined
Pedestrian is a person who walks around on the road rather than moving around in a vehicle. One of the medical tips is that walking around is good for human health, therefore, it is important to protect the pedestrian from undesirable vehicle. The question is how can we protect pedestrians from the moving vehicle? Pedestrianization is the answer; it is a restriction of vehicle access to an area designed for walking.
Pedestrian infrastructure is important because it increases the pedestrian’s safety and mobility while reducing the access of undesirable vehicles. Since, road traffic fatalities and injuries consume a lot of financial resources if it happens hence; the importance of pedestrian facility cannot be over emphasized in our society.
Finally, a report shows that those that are killed on road across the globe, about half of the fatalities constitute vulnerable road users (WHO, 2009), and pedestrians are part of Vulnerable Road Users (VRU). Therefore, a road design that lacks pedestrian facility creates a great risk for pedestrians. Since, everyone is a pedestrian hence; a desirable safety facility for all of us is of paramount importance.
According to Merriam–WebsterDictionary defines epilepsy as: “any of various disorders marked by abnormal electrical discharge in the brain and typically manifested by sudden brief episodes of altered or diminished movements or convulsion.”
Firstly, I noticed in above definition that the problem has to do with the brain of a man; this explains why the disease is a serious problem, because the brain controls virtually every part in a man.
Secondly, it happens suddenly to the victim anytime or anywhere. This also, explains why people suffering from such disease should not be allowed to ride a motorbike or drive a car or vehicle anywhere. Indeed, it’s unwanted occurrence that can embarrass its victim publicly. These were exactly what happened to a commercial motorcycle operator I saw on, 11th of August, 2015.
An epileptic patient riding a commercial motorbike
On the said day I was in a commercial bus going home when we (3 passengers and the driver) noticed a commercial motorcycle rider who suddenly became very unconscious when the motorbike was already on a speed on highway, we all wonder what had happened to the man we had earlier seen riding his motorbike normally in front of the bus we occupied. However, the man became very more unconscious at a speed on the highway; we saw his body shaking rapidly and his hands shaking aimlessly. As we were wondering of what had actually happened to the man in a twinkle of an eye, however, we over heard the voice of the only passenger he carried (a lady) shouting at him “why are you riding like this? Why are you riding like this……?”
The man could not control himself let alone the motorbike he was riding, eventually; he hit his motorcycle on our bus. It was a serious accident as both of them (the operator and the passenger) fell on the tied road, painfully enough both of them did not use crash element. However, they are so lucky or fortunate that no vehicle is following our bus bumper-to-bumper; otherwise it would have been a fatal accident. The operator fainted completely and he was carried away by his colleagues (commercial motorcycle riders) who knew him.
We latter got to know from his colleagues that the man in question was an epileptic patient who thought he had no other means to survive than to become a commercial motorcycle. The question is who to blame? Is it the innocent passenger that boarded the motorbike or the rider who is faced with problems of unemployment and poverty, but suffering from epilepsy disease or the government who suppose to regulate commercial motorcycle operations? The answer is yours.
In view of this incident and for safety purposes it will not be too much to suggest that proper safety regulations for both drivers and motorbike riders should not be undermined, also, they should undergo a test for seizures and epilepsy known as electroencephalograph (EEG) test, before license can be issued to them or allowed to ply the public roads with their vehicles or motorbikes.
It is important to note that many of these riders in the country do not have license while, most of them do not have registration identification numbers, and lack of proper policy needed to guide the commercial motorcycle operations and quality service provision among others are issues that need government courteous attention. In addition, poverty, poor standard of living, rate of unemployment and under employment that plunge many youths into indiscriminate commercial motorcycle operators must also be addressed by the government with immediate alacrity.
You don’t need to die untimely because you ride your car. Virtually everyday people lost their lives in a motor accident around the world. Every fatal accident on the road results to a death of a road user. Hence airbag is able to save your life in such a time.
Air bags in your car are made to reduce the likely harm that may happen to you during collision or accident. It is a safety feature that is designed to protect the occupants or passengers in an accident or collision. When accident occurs air bags are deployed immediately to prevent occupants from being injured, for instance, the air bag will protect you from hitting your head on the steering or dashboard which may hurt you during collision. Hence, with the help of air bag you may hit your head on the air pillow which may not hurt you during collision. A report has shown that air bags have reduced the number of deaths and serious injuries from roads accidents. For instance,” according to the Insurance, Institute for Highway Safety, the number of deaths when both seatbelts and air bag were used was 24% less than when only seat belts were used. Hence, the National Traffic and Safety Administration (NHTSA) now require cars made after 1998 to contain both driver side and passenger air bags.”
However, for the airbags to be more effective it is necessary to use seat belt. During collision, the seat belt will hold you firm to your seat while the airbag absorb the force of the impact. Apart from preventing serious injury, they have also saved many lives.
There are two types of air bags they are, the frontal airbags and the side-impact airbags. The frontal airbags are meant to prevent the driver and passenger in front from hitting the interior parts of the vehicle while, the side-impact airbags keep the head or the chest from impact.
An Air Bag Component
The air bag system is made up of two main components, which are the impact sensor and the air bag module unit. The impact sensor simply senses impacts. If an accident occurs, the impact sensor sends a signal (i.e. an electrical current) to the air bag module unit causing it to deploy in a short space of time. The sensors are located in the front of the car.
The air bag module unit is located in the steering column on the side of the driver and also, in the dashboard on the side of the passenger. This unit is made up of an air inflator assembly, a nylon bag and a breakaway cover. However, the whole sequence between the initial detection of a crash by the sensor and when the air bag is fully deployed happens in a short space of time. This is very important in other to protect the occupants from being injured.
The NHTSA Regional Administrator, Thomas M. Louizou, said: “More than half the drivers and passengers being killed in crashes are not wearing seat belts. That is a major problem.” Seat belt is important to the point that it can save your life in an auto crash. This is one of the major reasons among others why you need to wear your seat belt while driving. However, here are the reasons why you need to wear your seat belt.
Some countries make it a law for every motorist.
It will help to prevent your face from hitting the windshield, if your car is stopped suddenly.
When accident occurs and the car is somersaulted, a seat belt will hold you firm on your seat and keep you from being thrown from the vehicle.
It keeps you from hitting against some parts of the vehicle while driving e.g. the door, the car steering wheel and the seat in front of you.
The seat belts keep all the occupants e.g. the driver and passengers from hitting into each other, which may cause a serious injury in some accidents.
In case of accident, airbags may be useless or ineffective if you fail to wear your seat belt; you may still end up being thrown from the car or hit against its parts e.g. the door, the windshield etc, and passengers. In addition, if you are not wearing your belt your body may not be in the best position that benefits from the protection of an airbag.
The use of a seat belt may save your life; this is because death may come as a result from hitting the windshield, being thrown from the vehicle and banging against vehicle parts and passengers.
Use of seat still remains the number one vehicle safety device.
The use of seat belt helps to protect a pregnant woman and her unborn child in a car. However, the pregnant women are advised to wear the lap belt low, in such a way that it pulls downward on the pelvic bones. In other words, they should not wear it against their abdomen.
Road accident a major cause of death among little children
Road safety is described as the methods or the ways designed in other to minimize or reduce the likely risk that a road user may encounter for using the roads. Road safety focuses on prevention of serious injuries and untimely death. It is important to note that road accident has claimed so many lives while many other victims sustained permanent injuries. For instance, according to the World HealthOrganization (WHO) reveals that more than one million people are killed on road accident around the world each year. For example, in 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) published a report that not less than 1.2 million people were killed 50 million injured in traffic collisions on the road around the world each year and it was a major cause of death among little children of age nine to ten (9-10). In addition, in 2007, road accidents claimed 3,267 in three (3) states in Nigeria namely Osun, Ondo, and Oyo State. Source: The Punch Newspaper, Nigeria. A research also shows that one (1) out of five (5) deaths daily comes from road accident. Painfully enough, World Health Organization (WHO) also noted that the problem was most sever in developing countries. This is my major pain and concern, that in developing countries we lose huge number of human capital on our roads and simple prevention measure could have reduced this high number of deaths. Hence, the need for proper road safety measures cannot be over emphasized in road transportation.
The irony on Nigeria roadsThe Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) a national road safety agency responsible for road safety administration in Nigeria, revealed that bad road in Nigeria was not responsible to high mortality in Nigeria. This is because motorists are always cautious whenever, they are driving on a bad road, having realized that speed on a bad road is highly dangerous and that it can damage their cars or lead to a fatal accident hence, they move their vehicles cautiously and slowly as a result of this, high rate of accident and mortality are reduced on the bad road.
However, on a good road it was a different game entirely, where motorists on expressway or high way see it as an opportunity to showcase speed, they are less cautious unlike the motorists on the bad road, since it only takes a split of a second for an accident to occur hence, the accident rate are higher on a good road in Nigeria. This is why I personally see road safety to be individual responsibility and it is a primary responsibility for all road users, at least to save one’s life and the lives of other road users. If accident rate could be higher on a good road due to over speeding and careless driving and lesser on a bad road due to cautious driving, then every road user especially the motorists must not throw caution into the air whenever they are using the road. This is the first law we all need to obey to make our roads safer.
A clarion call to action
Furthermore, since we know that road safety is to encourage safer behavior of all road users in other to reduce the number of people killed or injured on our roads every day. Hence, everyone or every road user is expected to rise up to the task to make our roads safer on their parts. Individual should know the road sign and the traffic rules and put them into practice, motorists must ensure that their vehicles are in good condition before they ply the road, with these, inappropriate conduct or misbehavior of many road users will reduce. Since it is not hurt to be road safety conscious hence, we should see it as a civic duty to make our roads safer in developing countries.
My early days in primary school
Having talked about road safety as a primary responsibility of an individual, it is important to note that the major responsibility relies on government. Government should ensure that simple road safety education should be part of the school curriculum from primary to secondary school level. This is because road crashes are the leading cause of death among children, (BBC). In addition, according to BBC, road accidents killed 260,000 children in a year and about 10 million injured. Even in higher institution it should be part of general studies (GNS), since our students are also part of the road users hence, the need for road safety education must be considered in all our schools. For example, I remember that I got to know what the each traffic light stands for when I was still in primary school. Our social studies teacher taught us and even composed a song for it and we were made to rehearse the song several times, by this it stuck in our long time memory so, when I got to secondary school and even till now whenever I see a traffic light I know within me that I had the understanding from my primary school days. Therefore, to build a good road safety culture we should start to teach our children simple road safety education in their schools. Government is expected to take a leading role in this regard.
Public enlightenment, strict enforcement and provision of necessary infrastructure Are government responsibilities
More also, public enlightenment on road safety by the government in developing countries through its agencies must be encouraged e.g. in Nigeria Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC), Vehicle InspectionOfficer (VIO), National Orientation Agency (NOA) among others are government agencies. All media stations must not be left out in this task. In Nigeria speed limits seems to be a mere suggestion when you see some motorists showcase their over speeding on the road and if they are caught little money is enough to set them free. Therefore, strict enforcement to ensure compliance to road safety rules and regulations must not be undermined in developing nations, good road development and proper maintenance must not be left out as well, if our roads must be safer. I also noticed that some bridges and roads where necessary in Nigeria lack guard rail these and many others are the responsibilities of the government in developing nations.
Nevertheless, the importance of road transportation cannot be over emphasized in the growth of any given nation and more importantly highest number of people in any nation depend on road transport for their movement daily hence, the need to make our road safer for all road users is inevitable.
Logistics plays an important role in the growth of industry. Here are its responsibilities.
Orderfulfillment: – This has to do with completing the orders of prospective customer in a short period of time. Indeed, transportation and logistics would be any integral part of completing the order since they directly impact delivery.
TrafficandTransportation: – It manages the inbound and outbound movement of goods.
WarehousingandStorage: – A number of ware housing decisions directly impact logistics and transportation. For example, how many warehouses are needed? Where should they be located? How large should they be? How much inventory should each accommodate? These and more are what a logistics firm does in order to provide efficient storage facilities to it various customers.
IndustrialPackaging; – Transportation directly determines the type of packaging needed. However, logistics firm plans the exact method of how each type of product will be transferred from one place to another and store properly in the shelf and making space for the new stock.
Purchasing: – When purchase is made the distance and the quantities purchased directly affect the transportation cost hence, logistics are highly integrated.
Demandforecast: – Accurate and reliable fore casting is essential for effective inventory control.
Materialshandling: – They have best practices to handle materials most especially during transportation so that they are not damaged.8
It plays important role in inventory control for its customers.
It provides customer service. Logistics plays an extremely important role in ensuring that customers get the right products at the place at the right time. Transportation, warehousing, forecasting, inventory control and so on, have a direct impact on customer’s satisfaction.
Major Aspect of a Logistics Firm
There are two aspects of logistics that are considered as the most important part of logistics. They make logistics firm more meaningful and efficient in its operations. These most apparent aspects are warehousing and transportation.
Warehousing and Storage
Warehousing is defined as the storage of goods, raw materials, semi-finished goods and finished goods. This includes wide spectrum of facilities and locations that provide warehousing. It is a point in logistics system when goods are stored on certain amount and for different reasons till the time they are needed. This is a point where a logistics company is different from a transport or haulage company. A logistics firm provides transport services and storage facility for its customers. Unlike transport firm which is only dominant in transport service. A logistics firm without a storage facility is meaningless. Such a firm will not attract prospective customers hence; it will be difficult for such firm to survive in a competitive environment.
Transportation involves the physical movement or flow of goods from one area to the other. In logistics the transportation system is the physical links that connects customers, raw materials, suppliers, plants, warehouses, and channel members. Without this link which is transportation, logistics firm will not be effective. It is an integral part of logistics. If a logistics firm must be efficient enough then transport system cannot be separated from it. Transport plays an important role in logistics operations. Therefore, it is inevitable link in logistics.