Global Transport and Logistics

Transport and logistics from around the world.

Month: August 2015 (Page 1 of 2)

Pedestrianization: A desirable safety facility for pedestrians: by Owinje Peter

Recently in the month of August, 2015, a student of one of the higher institutions in Ibadan city, Oyo state, Nigeria, was knocked down by a vehicle on his way to campus. I learned that this was not the first incident in the area. One of the students of the school told me that the victim was the only son and the only child of the family. What a pity!

However, when I visited the area of the incident, I discovered that the campus is located beside an expressway (a busy road) that links two states together in the country and I also, discovered that the road lacks the necessary desirable safety facilities for pedestrians. For more understanding, the following are the conditions of the said road:

  1. No any pedestrian footpaths for the students,
  2. No traffic island or median divider between opposite direction traffic in    order to reduce the head collision between two vehicles in the area,
  3. No any traffic sign or signal for motorists or road users, and
  4. No single bond in the front of the campus to limit or reduce the speed of those drivers who think speed limit is just a mere suggestion.
  5. No zebra-crossing for the students, therefore, most students end up crossing the road at will.

However, it is important to note that, the risk of pedestrians is high when they share the same road with vehicles traveling at a fast speeds. This explains why the student was knocked down by a vehicle. Since the road lacks necessary safety facilities for pedestrians, I wonder if such ugly incident will not repeat itself again.

According to National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration (NHTSA), estimated that total pedestrian death in U.S was 4, 432 in 2011. In the same year it was estimated that 69, 000 pedestrians were injured while 11,000 of those injured were age 14 and younger (NHTSA).

According to the WHO reports in 2010, road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among young people.

A report also shows that more than 57% pedestrians in 4 cities were killed in South Africa. Another report also shows that roads in low and middle income countries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America revealed that 84% of the roads surveyed had no pedestrian footpaths though they carried motor vehicle traffic moving at 40km/h or more.


Pedestrian and Pedestrianization defined

Pedestrian is a person who walks around on the road rather than moving around in a vehicle. One of the medical tips is that walking around is good for human health, therefore, it is important to protect the pedestrian from undesirable vehicle. The question is how can we protect pedestrians from the moving vehicle? Pedestrianization is the answer; it is a restriction of vehicle access to an area designed for walking.

Pedestrian infrastructure is important because it increases the pedestrian’s safety and mobility while reducing the access of undesirable vehicles. Since, road traffic fatalities and injuries consume a lot of financial resources if it happens hence; the importance of pedestrian facility cannot be over emphasized in our society.

Finally, a report shows that those that are killed on road across the globe, about half of the fatalities constitute vulnerable road users (WHO, 2009), and pedestrians are part of Vulnerable Road Users (VRU). Therefore, a road design that lacks pedestrian facility creates a great risk for pedestrians. Since, everyone is a pedestrian hence; a desirable safety facility for all of us is of paramount importance.


Top 10 Railway Network in the World

The following are the 10 countries with the longest railway network in the world:
  1. USA has not less than 250,000 km network.
  2. China has over 100,000 rail networks.
  3. Russian has over 85,000 rail networks.
  4. India is 1st in Asia countries and 4th in the world with 65,000 km operating route. Source:
  5. Canada is on the fifth position with 48,000km rail network.
  6. Germany has 41,000 km rail network.
  7. Australia has 40,000 km rail network.
  8. Argentina has 36,000 km rail network.
  9. France has 29,000 km rail network. It is 2nd in Europe and 9th in the world.
  10. Brazil has 28,000km rail network.
Source: Railway

Warning: An epileptic patient riding a commercial motorcycle: A bid to untimely death. By Owinje Peter

Epilepsy defined. According to MerriamWebster Dictionary defines epilepsy as: “any of various disorders marked by abnormal electrical discharge in the brain and typically manifested by sudden brief episodes of altered or diminished movements or convulsion.” Firstly, I noticed in above definition that the problem has to do with the brain of a man; this explains why the disease is a serious problem, because the brain controls virtually every part in a man. Secondly, it happens suddenly to the victim anytime or anywhere. This also, explains why people suffering from such disease should not be allowed to ride a motorbike or drive a car or vehicle anywhere. Indeed, it’s unwanted occurrence that can embarrass its victim publicly. These were exactly what happened to a commercial motorcycle operator I saw on, 11th of August, 2015. An epileptic patient riding a commercial motorbike On the said day I was in a commercial bus going home when we (3 passengers and the driver) noticed a commercial motorcycle rider who suddenly became very unconscious when the motorbike was already on a speed on highway, we all wonder what had happened to the man we had earlier seen riding his motorbike normally in front of the bus we occupied. However, the man became very more unconscious at a speed on the highway; we saw his body shaking rapidly and his hands shaking aimlessly. As we were wondering of what had actually happened to the man in a twinkle of an eye, however, we over heard the voice of the only passenger he carried (a lady) shouting at him “why are you riding like this? Why are you riding like this……?” The man could not control himself let alone the motorbike he was riding, eventually; he hit his motorcycle on our bus. It was a serious accident as both of them (the operator and the passenger) fell on the tied road, painfully enough both of them did not use crash element. However, they are so lucky or fortunate that no vehicle is following our bus bumper-to-bumper; otherwise it would have been a fatal accident. The operator fainted completely and he was carried away by his colleagues (commercial motorcycle riders) who knew him. We latter got to know from his colleagues that the man in question was an epileptic patient who thought he had no other means to survive than to become a commercial motorcycle. The question is who to blame? Is it the innocent passenger that boarded the motorbike or the rider who is faced with problems of unemployment and poverty, but suffering from epilepsy disease or the government who suppose to regulate commercial motorcycle operations? The answer is yours. In view of this incident and for safety purposes it will not be too much to suggest that proper safety regulations for both drivers and motorbike riders should not be undermined, also, they should undergo a test for seizures and epilepsy known as electroencephalograph (EEG) test, before license can be issued to them or allowed to ply the public roads with their vehicles or motorbikes. It is important to note that many of these riders in the country do not have license while, most of them do not have registration identification numbers, and lack of proper policy needed to guide the commercial motorcycle operations and quality service provision among others are issues that need government courteous attention. In addition, poverty, poor standard of living, rate of unemployment and under employment that plunge many youths into indiscriminate commercial motorcycle operators must also be addressed by the government with immediate alacrity.      

Airbag can save you from untimely death

You don’t need to die untimely because you ride your car. Virtually everyday people lost their lives in a motor accident around the world. Every fatal accident on the road results to a death of a road user. Hence airbag is able to save your life in such a time. Air bags in your car are made to reduce the likely harm that may happen to you during collision or accident. It is a safety feature that is designed to protect the occupants or passengers in an accident or collision. When accident occurs air bags are deployed immediately to prevent occupants from being injured, for instance, the air bag will protect you from hitting your head on the steering or dashboard which may hurt you during collision. Hence, with the help of air bag you may hit your head on the air pillow which may not hurt you during                               collision. A report has shown that air bags have reduced the number of deaths and serious injuries from roads accidents. For instance,” according to the Insurance, Institute for Highway Safety, the number of deaths when both seatbelts and air bag were used was 24% less than when only seat belts were used. Hence, the National Traffic and Safety Administration (NHTSA) now require cars made after 1998 to contain both driver side and passenger air bags.” However, for the airbags to be more effective it is necessary to use seat belt. During collision, the seat belt will hold you firm to your seat while the airbag absorb the force of the impact. Apart from preventing serious injury, they have also saved many lives.     Type of air bag There are two types of air bags they are, the frontal airbags and the side-impact airbags. The frontal airbags are meant to prevent the driver and passenger in front from hitting the interior parts of the vehicle while, the side-impact airbags keep the head or the chest from impact. An Air Bag Component The air bag system is made up of two main components, which are the impact sensor and the air bag module unit. The impact sensor simply senses impacts. If an accident occurs, the impact sensor sends a signal (i.e. an electrical current) to the air bag module unit causing it to deploy in a short space of time. The sensors are located in the front of the car. The air bag module unit is located in the steering column on the side of the driver and also, in the dashboard on the side of the passenger. This unit is made up of an air inflator assembly, a nylon bag and a breakaway cover. However, the whole sequence between the initial detection of a crash by the sensor and when the air bag is fully deployed happens in a short space of time. This is very important in other to protect the occupants from being injured. Source:

10 Top Reasons why you need to wear your seat belt

The NHTSA Regional Administrator, Thomas M. Louizou, said: “More than half the drivers and passengers being killed in crashes are not wearing seat belts. That is a major problem.” Seat belt is important to the point that it can save your life in an auto crash. This is one of the major reasons among others why you need to wear your seat belt while driving. However, here are the reasons why you need to wear your seat belt.
  1. Some countries make it a law for every motorist.
  2. It will help to prevent your face from hitting the windshield, if your car is stopped suddenly.
  3. When accident occurs and the car is somersaulted, a seat belt will hold you firm on your seat and keep you from being thrown from the vehicle.
  4. It keeps you from hitting against some parts of the vehicle while driving e.g. the door, the car steering wheel and the seat in front of you.
  5. The seat belts keep all the occupants e.g. the driver and passengers from hitting into each other, which may cause a serious injury in some accidents.
  6. In case of accident, airbags may be useless or ineffective if you fail to wear your seat belt; you may still end up being thrown from the car or hit against its parts e.g. the door, the windshield etc, and passengers. In addition, if you are not wearing your belt your body may not be in the best position that benefits from the protection of an airbag.
  7. The use of a seat belt may save your life; this is because death may come as a result from hitting the windshield, being thrown from the vehicle and banging against vehicle parts and passengers.
  8. Use of seat still remains the number one vehicle safety device.
  9. The use of seat belt helps to protect a pregnant woman and her unborn child in a car. However, the pregnant women are advised to wear the lap belt low, in such a way that it pulls downward on the pelvic bones. In other words, they should not wear it against their abdomen.
  10. It does not hurt to use a seat belt.
  SOURCE: eHow

Road Safety Culture in a Developing Country

A poor road safety culture in a developing country One of the problems encountered in a developing country is the lack of road safety culture among road users. Most road users lack the good understanding of road signs and traffic rules. Whenever they see these road signs they cannot interpret the meaning let alone imbibe the culture that is needed to make our road safer in a developing country. Another issue is that some motorists, who understand some of the traffic signs, also fail to obey it hence, whenever they use the road they consciously exhibit their poor road safety culture. For instance, I turned on the television set one day and I saw one of the television stations in Nigeria on the screen conducting a public interview on zebra crossing and the interviewers focused majorly on the motorists. It is interesting to note that most motorists interviewed did not know zebra crossing while the few of them that said they know zebra crossing also said they don’t stop for any pedestrian that stand on zebra crossing and no one enforce them to obey the rule or to observe the traffic sign. Since motorists fail to stop for pedestrian that stand on zebra crossing hence, the pedestrian end up in crossing the road at will on the same zebra crossing. This is a poor road safety culture in developing countries. Military and paramilitary aren’t blameless To worsen the whole issue, I have seen pedestrian crossing the road at will in the presence of a policeman, soldier and even in presence of road safety personnel in Nigeria. I personally thought that it is one of the civic responsibilities of any of these officers to stop the traffic for any pedestrian who intends to cross the road at their sight, but most of the time I saw this responsibility or assertion being proved otherwise by these officers. In fact, a time, they violate the traffic rules and nobody is able to challenge their impunity. My early days in Boy Scout and Boy Brigade I remember when I was still a member of a Boy Scout and Boy Brigade in Nigeria, we were taught then that whenever we are in uniform and we see a pedestrian who wants to cross the road without being invited we should help to stop the traffic for them to pass or cross the road safely rather than ignoring them and allow them to cross at will. Therefore, whenever we were in uniform we were always eager to stop vehicles for any pedestrian we saw who intended to cross the road at will and we were proud to do this as a responsibility to the public. I don’t know if paramilitaries and military also see this as a responsibility to the public whenever they are outside their barracks. It is a lack of road safety culture and responsibility for any uniform men to ignore a pedestrian who intends to cross the public road at will. Since most of these uniform men are under the government then it is the responsibility of the government to ensure that all these uniform men demonstrate a good road safety culture in the society.     A senior national road safety officer demonstrated poor road safety    culture                                                                                                                                                                                         in another country It is also interesting to see one of the senior rank officer in Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC)(a federal government agency responsible for road safety administration in Nigeria) who was been interviewed in the local television program in Nigeria. I listened to him as he shared his experience when he traveled out of his country (Nigeria) to one of the European countries. According to him, he said he was going out from his apartment and he walked to the zebra crossing with the intention to cross to the other side of the road, he said, immediately he stepped on the zebra crossing just with one leg, he saw all the vehicles both from left and right stopped immediately for him to cross. According to him, he was shocked and afraid to see vehicles in such a busy road stopping at the same time therefore he thought within himself that something must had happened that was unknown to him that caused all the motorists to stop at once. So out of fear he ran back to see what had happened that held all the motorists into ransom, unknown to him that he was actually the one that held all the motorists into ransom by stepping on the zebra crossing, he was marveled and baffled when the motorists were asking him to cross the road since he had stepped into zebra crossing before he ran back. In fact, he said, no vehicle moved until he crossed the road. It was then he got to know that he was the one they actually stopped for. He is one of the top senior ranks in Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC), a federal government agency responsible for road safety administration in Nigeria. By his status in the society he knew by theory what zebra crossing stands for but he lacked the practical sense of it as a road user. He knew it is uncommon in Nigeria to see motorists willingly stopping their vehicles for just a pedestrian who steps on the zebra crossing. Even among the paramilitaries in Nigeria it is a common behavior to see those ignoring pedestrians on zebra crossing. Culture here means a behavior or an attitude; therefore, it is a very wrong behavior or bad attitude for a motorist to deny a pedestrian of his or her right to use the road on zebra crossing. In a developed country it is uncommon behavior but in a developing country it is a common behavior that must be corrected.   Conclusion It is not a gainsaying or overstatement, to say that in a developing country like Nigeria we lack a good road safety culture that is required for all road users, to maintain safety on the road. If a senior road safety officer could act ignorantly in such manner, you can imagine how a pedestrian who is not working in any position as a road safety officer would act. The truth never dies and the simple truth is that we lack road safety culture in our society. It is high time we start to imbibe this road safety culture for the benefit of all of us.  

Road Safety: Individual Responsibility and the Role of Government Inevitable.

Road accident a major cause of death among little children Road safety is described as the methods or the ways designed in other to minimize or reduce the likely risk that a road user may encounter for using the roads. Road safety focuses on prevention of serious injuries and untimely death. It is important to note that road accident has claimed so many lives while many other victims sustained permanent injuries. For instance, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) reveals that more than one million people are killed on road accident around the world each year. For example, in 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) published a report that not less than 1.2 million people were killed 50 million injured in traffic collisions on the road around the world each year and it was a major cause of death among little children of age nine to ten (9-10). In addition, in 2007, road accidents claimed 3,267 in three (3) states in Nigeria namely Osun, Ondo, and Oyo State. Source: The Punch Newspaper, Nigeria. A research also shows that one (1) out of five (5) deaths daily comes from road accident. Painfully enough, World Health Organization (WHO) also noted that the problem was most sever in developing countries. This is my major pain and concern, that in developing countries we lose huge number of human capital on our roads and simple prevention measure could have reduced this high number of deaths. Hence, the need for proper road safety measures cannot be over emphasized in road transportation. The irony on Nigeria roads The Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) a national road safety agency responsible for road safety administration in Nigeria, revealed that bad road in Nigeria was not responsible to high mortality in Nigeria. This is because motorists are always cautious whenever, they are driving on a bad road, having realized that speed on a bad road is highly dangerous and that it can damage their cars or lead to a fatal accident hence, they move their vehicles cautiously and slowly as a result of this, high rate of accident and mortality are reduced on the bad road. However, on a good road it was a different game entirely, where motorists on expressway or high way see it as an opportunity to showcase speed, they are less cautious unlike the motorists on the bad road, since it only takes a split of a second for an accident to occur hence, the accident rate are higher on a good road in Nigeria. This is why I personally see road safety to be individual responsibility and it is a primary responsibility for all road users, at least to save one’s life and the lives of other road users. If accident rate could be higher on a good road due to over speeding and careless driving and lesser on a bad road due to cautious driving, then every road user especially the motorists must not throw caution into the air whenever they are using the road. This is the first law we all need to obey to make our roads safer. A clarion call to action Furthermore, since we know that road safety is to encourage safer behavior of all road users in other to reduce the number of people killed or injured on our roads every day. Hence, everyone or every road user is expected to rise up to the task to make our roads safer on their parts. Individual should know the road sign and the traffic rules and put them into practice, motorists must ensure that their vehicles are in good condition before they ply the road, with these, inappropriate conduct or misbehavior of many road users will reduce. Since it is not hurt to be road safety conscious hence, we should see it as a civic duty to make our roads safer in developing countries. My early days in primary school Having talked about road safety as a primary responsibility of an individual, it is important to note that the major responsibility relies on government. Government should ensure that simple road safety education should be part of the school curriculum from primary to secondary school level. This is because road crashes are the leading cause of death among children, (BBC). In addition, according to BBC, road accidents killed 260,000 children in a year and about 10 million injured. Even in higher institution it should be part of general studies (GNS), since our students are also part of the road users hence, the need for road safety education must be considered in all our schools. For example, I remember that I got to know what the each traffic light stands for when I was still in primary school. Our social studies teacher taught us and even composed a song for it and we were made to rehearse the song several times, by this it stuck in our long time memory so, when I got to secondary school and even till now whenever I see a traffic light I know within me that I had the understanding from my primary school days. Therefore, to build a good road safety culture we should start to teach our children simple road safety education in their schools. Government is expected to take a leading role in this regard. Public enlightenment, strict enforcement and provision of necessary infrastructure Are government responsibilities More also, public enlightenment on road safety by the government in developing countries through its agencies must be encouraged e.g. in Nigeria Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC), Vehicle Inspection Officer (VIO), National Orientation Agency (NOA) among others are government agencies. All media stations must not be left out in this task. In Nigeria speed limits seems to be a mere suggestion when you see some motorists showcase their over speeding on the road and if they are caught little money is enough to set them free.  Therefore, strict enforcement to ensure compliance to road safety rules and regulations must not be undermined in developing nations, good road development and proper maintenance must not be left out as well, if our roads must be safer. I also noticed that some bridges and roads where necessary in Nigeria lack guard rail these and many others are the responsibilities of the government in developing nations. Conclusion Nevertheless, the importance of road transportation cannot be over emphasized in the growth of any given nation and more importantly highest number of people in any nation depend on road transport for their movement daily hence, the need to make our road safer for all road users is inevitable.  

The responsibilities of a logistics firm

Logistics plays an important role in the growth of industry. Here are its responsibilities.
  1. Order fulfillment: – This has to do with completing the orders of prospective customer in a short period of time. Indeed, transportation and logistics would be any integral part of completing the order since they directly impact delivery.
  2. Traffic and Transportation: – It manages the inbound and outbound movement of goods.
  3. Warehousing and Storage: – A number of ware housing decisions directly impact logistics and transportation. For example, how many warehouses are needed? Where should they be located? How large should they be? How much inventory should each accommodate? These and more are what a logistics firm does in order to provide efficient storage facilities to it various customers.
  4. Industrial Packaging; – Transportation directly determines the type of packaging needed. However, logistics firm plans the exact method of how each type of product will be transferred from one place to another and store properly in the shelf and making space for the new stock.
  5. Purchasing: – When purchase is made the distance and the quantities purchased directly affect the transportation cost hence, logistics are highly integrated.
  6. Demand forecast: – Accurate and reliable fore casting is essential for effective inventory control.
  7. Materials handling: – They have best practices to handle materials most especially during transportation so that they are not damaged.8
  8. It plays important role in inventory control for its customers.
  9. It provides customer service. Logistics plays an extremely important role in ensuring that customers get the right products at the place at the right time. Transportation, warehousing, forecasting, inventory control and so on, have a direct impact on customer’s satisfaction.
  Major Aspect of a Logistics Firm There are two aspects of logistics that are considered as the most important part of logistics. They make logistics firm more meaningful and efficient in its operations. These most apparent aspects are warehousing and transportation. Warehousing and Storage Warehousing is defined as the storage of goods, raw materials, semi-finished goods and finished goods. This includes wide spectrum of facilities and locations that provide warehousing. It is a point in logistics system when goods are stored on certain amount and for different reasons till the time they are needed. This is a point where a logistics company is different from a transport or haulage company. A logistics firm provides transport services and storage facility for its customers. Unlike transport firm which is only dominant in transport service. A logistics firm without a storage facility is meaningless. Such a firm will not attract prospective customers hence; it will be difficult for such firm to survive in a competitive environment. Transportation Transportation involves the physical movement or flow of goods from one area to the other. In logistics the transportation system is the physical links that connects customers, raw materials, suppliers, plants, warehouses, and channel members. Without this link which is transportation, logistics firm will not be effective. It is an integral part of logistics. If a logistics firm must be efficient enough then transport system cannot be separated from it. Transport plays an important role in logistics operations. Therefore, it is inevitable link in logistics.  

Can your customers really rely on your company’s products when needed?

Major reasons why some companies collapse are due to inadequate storage facilities and inadequate supply to meet customers’ needs. Engaging a logistics firm is a vital solution to end these problems. Logistics is an important aspect that keeps organization going. It helps the organization to store the materials required for production and supply it afterwards, when needed for production process. It also, provides storage facilities for the organization to store its products. More also, it may help the organization to supply its finished goods to their various customers. Nevertheless, it keeps a detailed list of all the items in stock for the organization. It may also, provides inventory control service to the organization by supervising the supply and storage and ensuring accessibility of items in order to insure an adequate supply without excessive supply. It also, gives a detail report of inventory to the organization for decision making Logistics definitions Logistics is concerned with the management of the movement (i.e. transportation) and storage of organization materials and finished goods or inventory. According to the council of supply chain management professionals (CSCMP) defined logistics management as that part of supply efficient, effective, forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customer requirements. In a simple language, logistics means having the right thing at the right place and at the right time.    Logistics objectives An objective of a logistics firm is to deliver finished inventory and materials assortments, in a correct quantity and in a usable condition when required to the right location where they are needed and more importantly, at the lowest total cost.   Logistics classifications However, according to Coyle, Bardi and Lanley they classified logistics into four (4) subdivisions which are:
  • Business logistics.
  • Military logistics.
  • Event logistics and
  • Service logistics.
  Business logistics: This is well defined in the definition given by the council of supply chain management professionals (CSCMP). However, it can also, be defined as a business planning framework for the management of materials service, information, communication and capital flow. It includes the increase complex information and control system required in today’s business environment. (Logistics Partners Linki; Pl 1996).              Military logistics: This refers to all that is necessary to support the operational capability of military forces and their equipment in order to ensure the readiness, reliability and efficiency. Event logistics: Management of all involved activities, facilities and personnel by organizing, scheduling and deploying the resources necessary to ensure the occurrence of an event and efficient withdrawal afterwards. Event logistics ensure that a program is well planned and enjoy by all participants. Service logistics: Acquisition, scheduling and management of facilities personnel and materials needed to support and sustain a service operation.

Public Transport operations in Spain

Spain has a very good public transport system in most of its major cities. Most cities have enough buses and rail transport that provide efficient transport service to the public. The public transport in Spain is more comfortable and convenient to board. Rail transport operation in cities of Spain The Spanish rail transport system is run by Government Company called Red Nacional de los Ferrocarriles Espanoles (RENFE). This organization provides service to major cities in Spain. Although it does not provide service to all small towns, however, it is supported by other railways operations like FFCC city lines Barcelona and private railways. However, RENFE uses the AVE trains for its operations, they are fast and efficient in fact, they are among the best train in Europe. However, there are other many local trains that operate on short distance they are known as tranvia i.e. (tram). Also, suburban commuter trains i.e. (cercanias) they are second class service provider and they stop at all stations in Spain. Transportation made by buses in cities of Spain. The local buses in cities of Spain run around the clock, they operate from around 0600 until between 22:00 and midnight. However, midnight transport operation in Spain is more expensive. It is important to know that most local bus services in Spanish cities lack enough seats for passengers to sit hence, most passengers end up in standing for the rest of their journey. It is also, important to note that the buses operating within the urban cities are quite slow, however, to tackle this problem some major cities provide special lanes for buses in order, to enhance smooth and fast transportation. However, most towns in Spain have their bus terminal, nevertheless, whenever you are at a bus stop to board a bus, the bus may not necessarily stop for you unless you indicate your interest to board the bus or you wave to the driver to stop for you.   Transportation by taxi in Spanish cities                                                                                     In Spain you are expected to use taxis that are allowed by the authority to operate within the cities, such taxis often display their special license. Since the taxis are monitored and governed by a strict legislation hence, they provide a very high standard service to the public. However, these public taxis often display a green light when they are free for any passenger to board. The taxis in cities of Spain are metered and they also have a set price for certain journey. However, tipping is their common practice in Spain. Transportation by metro in Spanish cities Metro transport lines are found in Madrid, Barcelona and Valencia. They provide the most fast transport services to get around these cities and during the rush hours, they are highly patronized. However, special tickets are made available for passengers to be used. Such tickets include, cheap day return, a metro card that allows the passengers unlimited use of metro lines for three (3) to five (5) days, and weekly and monthly tickets or passes are also available for passengers. SOURCE:

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