Month: October 2015
There are quite number of plane crashes around the world that could make one to doubt if travel by air is safer. In fact, every year some flyers are killed or injured in air crash. According to International Civil Aviation Organization, in 2012, there were 9 fatal accidents involving airliners causing 372 deaths. More so, on 10th of December, 2005; a Sosoliso Airlines DC-9 crashed in Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria, killing all the 103 occupants on board. Painful enough most passengers on board were school children travelling home for Christmas holidays. In addition, the recent missing of one of the Malaysia Airlines-flight MH370 still remains a mystery in the heart of many people. All of this news could make one to be panic and wonder what could be the major reason of a passenger plane crashing. However, the following are the major causes of plane crashes. Pilot Error: At least not less than the halves of all plane crashes are caused by pilot error. In other words, pilot error may account for 50% of all plane crashes. Source: Accident statistics. Examples of pilots’ error responsible for plane crashes In the year 2012, Sukhoi Superject 100 crashed into Mount Salak in Indonesia due to the pilots’ error. The pilots took the aircraft on demonstration flight or test flight for its potential buyers and journalists, however, the aircraft had Terrain Awareness and Warning System( TAWS), but this system had been switched off by the pilots who erroneously belief that the computer was malfunctioning. Unknown to them that they were closer to the said mountain, painfully; the crew who would have be in the better position to raise alarm to the pilots were also distracted by conversation with their potential buyers in the cockpit. The aircraft crashed and all the 45 occupants on board died. More so, on 4th of June, 2012 a plane crashed in Nigeria killed all the 153 passengers on board. According to the people familiar with the joint investigation by US and Nigerian officials it was revealed that the crash was likely caused by pilots’ failure to turn on certain fuel pumps or valves. In addition, in 1987, an aircraft flying to Tokyo also crashed because of a pilot who has psychological problems put the plane engines into reverse mid flight. However, the above given percentage may seems so high to accept having known that most plane crashes are always a fatal accident in which many innocent people may lose their lives. Hence, one may be tempted to cast all the blames on pilots. However when you think about many thinks that a pilot has to do or face when flying a plane, for instance, sometimes pilots navigate through dangerous weather, they response to mechanical issues, they also, execute a safe takeoff and landing to mention but a few. One may think otherwise not to blame pilots for all the plane crashes. Pilots are extremely well trained and highly experienced people before they are allowed to control an airliner, but they are not infallible. Hence, the saying, ‘to err is human’. Besides, not all plane crashes are caused by pilots’ error; it may also be caused by other errors or factors. For example on 22nd of June, 2000, in Shitai, China, Wuhan AL plane was struck by lightning causing the plane to explode and crash. On 15th of January, 2009 in New York, New York a US Airways ditched in Hudson River after collision with Canadian Geese and there after losing the both engines. Source: Accident statistics Mechanical Error: Another reason for plane crash is mechanical error. An aircraft could be likened to a machine; sometimes a machine could suddenly develop a mechanical fault. If a plane flying on the air and suddenly develops a mechanical fault that the pilots could not easily handle, you can imagine what could happen to such a plane. Let us also imagine when a plane flies on the air and a critical system in the plane fails, in such a condition pilots may be at the mercy of the plane, you can imagine what could happen to such a plane. I think it takes a miracle for such plane to land safely. Mechanical error may also occur as a result of flaw in the plane’s design. For instance, in 1955, a West African Airways flight to Nigeria crashed because of the flawed in wing design that led to metal fatigue crack and wing failure. Mechanical failure may also occur due to the any undesirable outside circumstances that may affect or damage the plane e.g. lightning, birds etc. for instance, on 10th of October, 2001, in Off Valencia, Spain; an electrical power of an aircraft belonging to Flightline was lost due to a lightning strike. Mechanical error accounts for about 22% of all aviation accidents. Source: Accident statistics. Examples of mechanical errors responsible for plane crashes In 1985 a Boeing 747, Japan Airlines flight 123, crashed into a mountain due to mechanical fault killing 520 people on board. The investigators found out that the rear pressure bulkhead of the plane ruptured because it was badly repaired and this led to total loss of control. In addition, in 1997, in Russia an aircraft, belonging to Russian Air Force was unable to coordinate operation of the high pressure compressors, due to design flow. On the 12th of August, 2001, Air Transat plane ran out of fuel due to improperly installed part that caused fuel to leak from the aircraft. Source: Accident statistics. Weather Factor: Bad weather can be dangerous for a pilot to fly a plane, at such a time most planes are grounded at the air port. In other words, they are not allowed to fly when the weather conditions are bad, such weather conditions include heavy fogs, heavy winds, and violent storms, among others. Lightening strike can be so dangerous; its flash alone can cause temporary blindness to the pilots, you can imagine how dangerous it would be if a pilot flying or piloting a plane fail to see in few minutes due to a lightning strike, most especially, when the plane is already at the high speed in the sky. This is one of the unwanted and undesirable natural challenges a pilot has to face in his choosing career. Therefore, making a pilot a ‘scapegoat’ for all plane crashes may be highly unfair. Moreover, lightening strike has an evil potential so to say, to disable an aircraft in many ways. For example, in 1988 in Mulheim, Germany, NFD aircraft suffered a complete electrical failure when it was struck by lightning. Source: Accident statistics. A bad weather indeed can cause a plane crash a good example is an Indonesian plane in 2010, with 103 passengers on board crashed into a nearby hillside due to bad weather conditions. Sabotage Factor: A flight may turn out to be a sabotage flight, this may happen when a plane is hijacked by passenger(s) who manage to smuggle dangerous weapon(s) onto plane. For example on the 23rd of November, 1996, an air craft belonging to Ethiopian AL was hijacked and ran out of fuel and thereafter crashed in the ocean. Another good example was that of September 11th, 2001, in US. Saboteurs may also go to the extent of detonating bomb in aircraft this evil act was responsible for certain percentage of plane crashes in the world. For instance, in 1994, Alas Chiricamas aircraft crashed after a bomb exploded aboard. Sometimes, a plane can be shot down by the saboteurs. Source: Accident statistic. Human Error: many other reasons for plane crashes can be classified as human errors. In other words, plane crashes are also traceable to costly mistakes of man. Such errors may come as a result of fuel starvation; air traffic control error; passenger error; etc. however, let us examine the following examples for each of these human errors for better understanding. Errors due to fuel starvation In Russian 1996, Krasnoyarskie AV crashed into a mountain after running out of fuel. More so, in Pakistan 1998, Ariana Afghan AL plane ran out of fuel and crashed into a mountain after being diverted to their alternate due to bad weather. In Italy, 2005, Tuninter aircraft also ran out of fuel due to the maintenance crew error, they wrongly, installed a fuel gauge for a ATR-42 on the ATR-72. Source: Accident statistics. Errors due to air traffic control In 1991 in Los Angeles, California, US, there was a plane crash between USAir aircraft and Skywest aircraft due to the Air Traffic Control error. It was discovered that the ATC cleared a plane to land while the runway was already occupied by another aircraft. Also in 1996, there was a plane crash in Lagos State, Nigeria, due to the controller error who thought he had cleared to aircraft to the correct altitude but unfortunately, he didn’t. There was another plane crash on the 26th 0f September, 1997, in Buah Nabar, Indonesia. It was revealed that the Air Traffic Control was erroneously, directing an Indonesia plane known as Garuda Indonesian AL, in a wrong direction into mountainous terrain. Source: Accident statistics. Passenger’s Error/fire accidents Accident Statistics also shows that some plane crashes were caused by fire incident. For instance, CAAC plane crashed in Guangzhou, China in 1982. It was later discovered that a passenger cigarette caused a fire in the cabin which led to an oxygen tank exploding. In addition, a fire broke out in the rear cargo hold of Aeroflot aircraft, and crashed in pervouralsk, Russia, in 1990.
A thumb is the short tick finger that is located at the side of your hand. It is a strong finger that supports other fingers to function very well. More also, a thumb has natural capacity or endowment to touch other fingers. No any other finger has this endowment; in other words, no any finger can easily touch other fingers except the thumb, this shows why thumb is most unique finger among its equals. However, in our contemporary world I have discovered that transport is that thumb that touches other fingers. It is a desirable element in life for all. No individual, organization or a nation can do without transport. Transport is relevant to all aspect of human life. It is important to health care, education, economy, tourism, just to mention a few. In fact, it is the most desirable essential element that has no barrier to any aspect or activity on earth. For example, a sick man or patient will not consult a veterinary doctor for treatment likewise a human doctor will not prescribe drugs for animals, even though both of them are trained to save lives in medicine one is to save the life of an animal and the other to save human life and by profession they are not meant to cross their boundaries. In other words, their disciplines have a barrier or a limit, but transport is not so, it is relevant to all, either animal or man. For instance, if an animal e.g. a dog is made to walk from one place to another in order to get a treatment from a veterinary doctor and a man also walks into an hospital to see a doctor, do you know that both of them have engaged in transport? Walking is also a form of transport and it is the oldest form of transport on earth. Therefore, no any living creature or organism e.g. man or animal that can do without transport. It is through transport they can access to other opportunities, like education, employment, health care, etc. However, for more understanding let us examine the importance of transportation to some aspect of human endeavors; To the Manufacturer or Producer: It is the major element that links the factors of production together. It also improves the relationship between the producers and its final consumers. Therefore, transport to the manufacturers is inevitable. To the Farmer: The easy evacuation of agric produce and accessible of items needed in a farm land such as tractor, fertilizer, etc., are made possible through efficient transportation. To the Health Care Delivery: Through transportation health centers can be easily accessible by patients. Even in the case of emergency, transport plays an important role in providing fast or just-in-time transport service to the victim, hence, it contributes to the better health delivery. In other words, transport also supports life. In Tourism Industry: Transport is the most desirable element in tourism, without transport tourism industry will be a daydream or a mirage. To the Economy: Without any element of doubt, efficient transport is a vital component of economic development both nationally and globally. To a Nation: It is a noticeable linkage that links or connects different parts of a country together and a global world at large. To a new community site: Transport is important to create a sustainable environment in a new community site. Transport cannot be overemphasized in the early stage of a new community. Absence of transport alone can affect the well-being of the whole community and may also lead to long term financial and social cost. In conclusion, since, transport support all aspect of human endeavors be it political, social, education, to mention but a few, hence, it can be rightly construe that transport is a thumb that touches other fingers.
One major reason for maintaining proper tire pressure is to increase your safety and safety of other road users on the road. Proper tire pressure will certainly, improve your vehicle’s handling; decrease tire wear; reduce braking distance; increase water dispersion while decreases the possibility of hydroplaning; reduce rolling resistance, i.e. the force require to roll a loaded tire and enhance fuel economy. Keeping correct air pressure in your tires helps your tire to last longer and to be safer on the road. These explain why TPMS sensor is important in your car. TPMS means Tire Pressure Monitoring system and it is developed to alert the drivers or motorists when the air pressure in their vehicle’s tire is too low or dropped below the manufacturer recommended level that could create unsafe driving conditions. TPMS alerts you if your tire is under-inflated or overinflated. TPMS indicator is usually located on the dashboard. It is designed like horseshoe-shape with an exclamation point in the center. Once the TPMS illuminates on the dashboard, all you need to do at first is to check your tire pressures with a gauge to determine the tire that needed air pressure. How to read a TPMS warning light with meaning
- When the light turns on and stays on while driving: it means one or more of the tires are under-inflated you need to check all the tires in order to determine the under-inflated tire and add the correct air pressure.
- When the light turns on and off: this probably happen when the temperature or the heat builds up from driving a vehicle fluctuates.
- When the light blinks or flashes for about 60 to 90 seconds when you start your car and later stays on: it means the Tire Pressure monitoring System is faulty all you need to do is to visit a service centre with your car to correct the fault.
- The system may be set to give warning below the tire pressure needed to carry the load in the vehicle.
- A time the sensor may not be able to give an accurate tire pressure data to the on-board computer.
- The system may not be able to correctly determine if one tire is too low than the other.
- The system may also not be able to correctly determine whether the tires are losing air pressure at the same rate.
Logistics is an important factor that contributes to the progress of many organizations around the world. Logistics provides viable supports to enhance the smooth productivities of many organizations. One of the ways among others to increase the productivity of any organization is to engage the service of reputable logistics firm. Logistics provides auxiliary support to an organization the areas of: materials handling, production, packaging, inventory, transportation, ware housing, and often security. These services are needed for any organization to excel in a competitive world. However, here below are the lists of 10 top logistics firms around the world. The ranking is based on the income of each company.
- DHL Logistics: DHL is the number one on the list and one of the international logistics firm from Germany known as Deutsche Post. DHL provides services throughout the world on 4 major areas which are: (a) DHL Express (b) DHL Global Forwarding and (d) DHL Supply Chain. It is also important to note that many people prefer to send their urgent document and goods through DHL because of its efficiency, reliability and door-to-door quick delivery. The company has 325, 000 workers and its revenue in 2014 is $61, 830. 90m.
- UPS: The number 2 on the table is UPS. It started its operation as a logistics firm in 19 07, in USA by James Casey. The annual revenue is $58, 232m.
- FedEx: in 1971, the company started as Federal Express in US. It has 325,000 workers throughout the world. the company revenue is $45, 567m.
- SNCF: Is the French National Railways Company. The full meaning of NSCF is Societe National des Chemins de for Francais. The headquarters of the company is located in Monaco France. It is a state owned company that has 43,000 employees and its revenue is $30, 453. 6m.
- Kahn + Nagel: This company was established by August Kuehne and Friedrich Nagel in 1890 in Bremen Germany. The company is number 1 best sea freight forwarder and 2nd best cargo forwarder in the world. The company has more than 63, 000 in over 100 countries and its revenue is $ 22, 530. 64m.
- DB Schenter: It is a strong logistics firm and it has 2 major areas which are DB Logistics and DB Red. The company has over 2,000 locations and 95, 700, workers. The company is so viable to the extent that it maintains 32,000 regular schedule services in overland transportation per week and in air transportation, the air freight is not less than 1,200 of its own chartered planes per year. The revenue is $19. 800m.
- Nippon Express: It is a Japanese company that was established in 1937. The company has 29 areas of operation and it serves the following regions viz: America; Middle East; Africa; East Asia; South and South East Asia; Oceania and Japan. The staff strength is about 33, 153 workers. Revenue is $14, 061m.
- H. Robison: The company was established in 1905. The company carries out its operations 4 areas which are North America, South Africa, Europe and Asia. The logistics firm associates with 66,000 transport providers in order to boost its operations. The revenue is $13, 470. 07m.
- Panalpina: The logistics company was established in 1935. The logistics firm has not less than 500 offices in 70 countries. However, the core values of the firm are performance, integrity and professionalism.
- CEVA: It is full service transportation and logistics firm that fully provides freight management and contact logistics at 950 locations. Its revenue is $7, 864m.
- OR Tambo International Air Port, Johannesburg. South Africa.
- Cape Town International Air Port, Cape Town, South Africa.
- King Shaka International Air Port, Durban, South Africa.
- Cairo International Air Port, Cairo, Egypt.
- Hurghada International Air Port, Hurghada Egypt.
- Sharam El-Sheikh International Air Port.
- Muhammed V International Air Port, Casablanca Morocco.
- Murtala Muhammed International Air Port, Lagos. Nigeria.
- Jomo Kenyatta international Air Port. Nairobi, Kenya.
- Port Elizabeth, South Africa.