Global Transport and Logistics

Transport and logistics from around the world.

Category: maritime transport

5 Top Reasons for Seaport Selection

In every sector of any given industry, making decisions on what to do for daily progress at the work place remains a necessary task. Likewise, in container shipping industry, the choice of a seaport terminal is one of the important decisions to make by shipping lines and market players involved.

Making the choice of a terminal seaport along the journey or on every single route involves several factors that will make shipping profitable for both importers and the shipping industries. In any business venture, profitability is one of the notable keys that indicate industrial progress. In addition, it is important to also note that there are factors showing that not every port can accommodate different sizes of ships. Therefore, to avoid unnecessary delay, the need for port selection on every single route becomes evident.

The following are factors guiding port selection:

  1. Location of the Port: A port location that allows the efficiency of inter modal transport system may influence the choice of the players involved.
  2. Volume of Cargo Handling: Ports that can handle high number of cargo which can guarantee a valuable return to both shippers and shipping industries as well as multi modal operators will definitely be considered in the selection of calling ports on every single route.
  3. Terminal Charges: Terminal charges are placed on shipping industries by different port authorities. However, if the charges are too exorbitant such as to affect operation profitability, the shipping industries may be discouraged to make use of such port if alternative ports are available.
  4. Handling Efficiency/Reduction in Delay: Any port that can handle high volume of cargo will reduce unnecessary delay of ships at the port, which will ultimately influence the choice of both the importers and shipping industries.
  5. Water Depth: The water depth of a seaport is a major factor that the shipping industry will consider to select the terminal port. A deeper water depth will accommodate larger ships.

Maritime transport remains an efficient mode of carrying large number of cargoes. Shipping across the continent may involve at least two ports which are the home port and the final destination port. However, in most cases it may involve more than two ports, and this may be a port of call along a single route or journey. Nevertheless, no matter the number of the ports involved in intercontinental shipping, proper management of ports and their capacity play an important role in port selection.

 

7 Peculiarities of Maritime Transportation

As the world population increases virtually every year mostly in African countries and developing countries in other continents of the world, likewise, the demand for different products around the world continues to increase on a large scale. In view of this, the development of industries on an extensive scale across the globe becomes inevitable, mostly in developed countries who would like to expand their global trade and economy. To make this possible, maritime or marine transportation becomes necessary. Unfortunately, the emergence of Covid-19 pandemic has affected the operation of industries and maritime operations.

It is interesting to note that international container shipping industries around the world enhance trading among nations to improve the standard of living globally hence, thousands of containers are loaded daily in different seaports around the world. No nation in the world is an island or is self-sufficient; every nation depends on one another for one or more products which call for global trade and to make this possible, there is the need for efficient mode of transport at a low cost that can carry large number of goods across geographical locations. Hence, marine transport remains the most suitable mode.

Maritime transport has huge benefits and here are some of them:

  1. More than 80% of global trade is made possible through maritime transport. This mode of transport supports global trade activities thus enhancing even distribution of different products or goods around the world.
  2. It supports multimodal transport system. The use of seaport increases the use of other modes of transport to complement each other, in order to make goods available where they are needed.
  3. Marine transport is a very efficient transport mode for moving huge number of container goods more than any other mode. For instance, a large container ship can carry more than 23,000 containers i.e. TEUs (Twenty-foot Equivalent Units).
  4. Since industrialized and developed countries depend majorly on container shipping industry or marine transport to boost global trade and economy, this means that through the support of marine transportation more jobs are created. This serves as means of livelihood for billions of people around the world. In simple language, marine transport can be used in any given nation to liberate millions of people from abject poverty.
  5. Since sea transport has the potential to boost the economy of a nation, generate employment, and open up new business opportunities, then, it will not be an overstatement to say that marine transportation is an indispensable tool for global sustainable development for 2030 agenda.
  6. Despite the efficient use of marine transport or container ships in the world today, the mode of transport still remains the least in environmental pollution when you compare it to other transportation modes. For instance, a single container ship may have in-built capacity to carry larger cargo than more than 100 articulated vehicles or lorries can carry. In simple language, it is more environmental friendly than other transport modes. However, monorail and electric car are excluded in this comparison.
  7. It’s economical and safer: Ships consume lesser fuel with lower air pollution. There are now notable improvement in ships’ engine in terms of effectiveness. There’s also low rate of accident in seaport transportation.

The major roles of marine transport is to contribute to trade activities and to sustain development. Therefore, maritime transportation plays these key roles and everyone in the world today enjoys these benefits.

Sea Transport: A means for industrial growth

sea transport

sea transport

Marine transportation is undoubtedly boosting the growth of industry in the world. The mode is used for transporting the largest number of cargoes or containers across the globe more than any other modes, Millions of containers are moved across the sea virtually every day and no other mode of transport can match its capacity. Import and export of goods in large numbers around the world are made possible to a large extent through sea transportation. The efficacy of maritime transport to increase the growth of industries in the world cannot be underestimated. Industries producing different items in large quantities would prefer their products to be carried to where they are needed beyond their geographical locations. To achieve this purpose transport by sea is a better option than air transport in terms of capacity and affordability. Sea transport is highly cost effective and most importantly its capacity to carry heavy loads or bulk cargoes than any other mode in international transport cannot be overemphasized. Maritime transportation plays an important role in the industrial revolution of any nation and today, world trade growth record cannot be divorced from the impact of sea transportation. However, here are the ways that sea transport has contributed to the growth of industry in the world:
  1. It boosts trade expansion on alarge scale.
  2. It gives consumersthe benefit of having access to products that are produced by other nations.
  3. It is cheaper, thereby reducing the transportation cost that would have increased the cost of production.
  4. Regular and efficient maritime transportation is a means to reducing congestion at the sea port. In other words, it can be used to reduce congestion at the sea port.
  5. It boosts the nation’s
  6. It creates room for globalization. Marine transportation moves larger goods or cargoes from one continent or nation to another.
  7. Sea transportation serves as a complement to other modes of transport. Sea ports often serve as a point of loading and off-loading of cargoes.
  8. Maritime transport plays a key role in the globalized market. Global freight transportation is a critical element to industrial growth.
Base on the roles sea transport plays in industrial development, it is clear that it is a mode that enhances economic prosperity and quality of life.

Ship Engineers’ Indispensability in Sea Transportation

Related image Sea transportation is the movement of goods and people from one place to another by sea or any other waterways. Hence, ship engineers, as it were, are people who run or in charge of the engine in a ship. They play major roles in ensuring a smooth sea transportation and preventing unwanted mechanical or technical faults by maintaining propulsion plants during operations. These, among others, explain indispensable obligations of ship engineers. In addition, ship engineers also perform other functions such as maintaining the sewage, the lighting, the heating, the air conditioning, the lubrication, the ventilation, the propeller shafts and propellers, the refrigeration, the fabrication of engine parts for replacement e.g. bolts, valves etc., installing the engine controls, the electrical power generation plant as well as the water system in the ship. Other duties include managing life-saving equipment, fuel management, boat management, safety management, fire-fighting, first aid, supervising loading and off-loading hazardous materials, monitoring working conditions of engines and any other equipment so as to know whether or not they are working properly and to  identify any fault, as well as engaging in pollution prevention in line with the international regulations and nautical tasks. However, there are different positions in ship engineering division generally for British and US vessel. Here are the positions: 1. Chief Engineer: This post is in charge of engine department. 2. Second Engineer in US it’s called 1st Assistant Engineer: This post engages in daily operations of engine department. 3. Third Engineer in US it’s called 2nd Assistant Engineer: The position takes the responsibility of maintaining the auxiliary engines and boilers. 4. Fourth Engineer in Us it’s called 3rd Assistant Engineer: This engineer unit maintains the air compressors, purifiers, pumps and auxiliary machinery. 5. Electro-technical Officer (ETO): The officer in charge maintains electrical and electronics equipment like radars, VHF and so on. 6. Electrical Officer: The officer maintains only the electronics equipment. 7. Junior Engineer 8. Cadet Technicians and craftsmen in ship engineer division In ship engineer division, there are other regular skilled jobs which include: a. Machinist or fitter: The person in charge fabricates and repairs machines. b. Motorman: The person assists the engineer and also does menial jobs. c. Oiler: The duty is to ensure that the machines are well lubricated. d. Wiper: The duty is to keep the engine room clean and tidy. Having considered the above enormous tasks of ship engineer division, it won’t be too much to say that the engineer division is indispensable in marine transportation.

Notable Types of Ship You Need to Know in Maritime Transport.

Greatest volume of cargo in international trade is carried by sea transportation. This explains one of the important roles sea transportation plays in the world. Freight transportation by sea is a cheaper means by which people move their cargoes in large quantity from one nation to another. Industrial revolution becomes  effective in a nation that has a well-developed marine transport. Indeed, it’s a necessary complement to other modes of freight transportation and trading activities. However, ships can be classified by its propulsion and size. Below are the types of ships in marine transportation: Related image 1. Bulk Carriers: Like the name suggests, they are cargo ships used to carry large number of cargo. The main surface of the out-side floor of the ship is designed like a large box to carry cargoes. Related image 2. Container Ships: Like the name suggests, it is used to carry large dry cargoes packaged into large standardized containers. To a large extent, most of these ships are moved by diesel engines. Related image 3. Tankers: They are designed to carry liquid materials such as petroleum gas, crude oil, petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), chemicals, vegetable oil, wine and so on.   Related image 4. Refrigerated Ships: These are also cargo ships used to carry perishable items that need controlled temperature to preserve its freshness and such perishable items include: fruits, meat, fish, and vegetable among others. Related image 5. Roll-on/roll- off ships: These ships are specially designed to carry dry cargoes like automobiles, trailers, railway carriages. The ships are designed with ramps that make it easy to roll in and roll out. Related image 6. Coastal Trading Vessels: These are used for trading activities between different areas, nations and continents. They are usually small in size. Image result for pictures showing ferry vessel 7. Ferries: These kinds of vessels are commonly used as public transport for people living in water-side areas; they are used to move passengers and their belongings such as any form of vehicles, luggage, and equipment, among others. 8. Cruise Ships: These are used mostly by tourism industries. They are ships used purposely for pleasure and people traveling in cruise ships are people traveling for recreation.   Related image 9. Ocean Liners: These are ships used to carry large number of people from one seaport to another on a long regular- distance planned at a certain time. They are also used to carry cargoes, mails and at times, they are used for any other purpose. Ocean liners normally are strong ships designed to resist rigorous conditions they are likely to face while on ocean. Related image 10. Cable Layers: These are undersea or submarine built vessels purposely used to lay cables for telecommunications, electricity etc. below the surface of water. Related image 11. Tug-boats: These boats are used to tow other boats or vessels. Related image 12. Dredgers: They are ships usually used in a depth-less area of the sea that may affect smooth operations of the ship. These ships are designed to dig out and remove the materials that sink to the bottom of the sea.   Related image 13. Barges: They are flat-bottom boats usually used to move heavy cargoes on rivers and canals. It is important to note that most barges use tugboats or towboats to operate.   Related image 14. Multi-purpose ships: They are ships used to carry various items both in bulk and small quantities and at times, they are used to move heavy items. The modern ones are now designed to carry containers.

10 The Most Notable Shipwrecks in the World

Related image A shipwreck 1. RMS TITANIC RMS Titanic is one of the popular shipwrecks in the world history. It was an ocean liner said to be unsinkable but later proved to be most notable sinkable ship in the world. In 1912, precisely on April 10, the ship was on a journey. 4 days as the journey progressed, precisely on April 14, 1912, the ship suddenly hit an iceberg just before the midnight and the ship sank less than 3 hours, killing 1,514 lives. However, in 1985, a Franco-American expedition discovered the ship and found that the ship split into 2 parts, each part lying about a 3 rd of a mile from each other. 2. RMS REPUBLIC RMS Republic was built 1903 and sank on January 24, 1909 at about 8:40p.m. 6 lives were said to be lost in that incident. The bad incident occurred in 1909, on January 23 rd , when the ship collided with the Lloyd Italiano liner SS Florida and the ship sank at about 8:40 p.m. on the said day. 3. RMS LUSITANIA RMS Lusitania started operation in 1906 and it sank on May 7 th , 1915. 1, 191 lives were said to be lost in that incident. It was said that the shipwreck was caused by a German U-boat. 4. USS ARIZONA USS Arizona was specially built for the US Navy in1915. It was bombed by the Japanese on December 7 th , 1941. It was said that 1, 177 crew members and officers were killed in the incident. On the 5 th of May, the shipwreck became National Historic Landmark in the US and the remains, known as USS Arizona Memorial, are viewable in the US. 5. THE MARY ROSE It was a Tudor warship used during the reign of Henry VIII and it was used in many battles against France, Britain and Scotland and it was sunk during a battle against French. 6. VASA It was a Swedish warship, believed to have been built between 1626 and 1628. It sank on the 10 th of August, 1628, after being hit by strong winds and flooding, sinking 20 minutes and less than a mile into its journey. 7. THE ANNE’S REVENGE It was an 18 th century warship popularly known as the ship of the legendary pirate Blackbeard. It used the ship less than a year with greatest achievement during this short period of time. 8. MV DONA PAZ MV Dona Paz is referred to as the deadliest of all peacetime maritime disasters. In December 20 th , 1987, the Philippine registered ferry with over 4,000 passengers collided with an oil tanker MT Vector resulting into fire accident killing an estimated number of 4, 386 passengers and there were only 24 survivors. It took 8 hours for Philippine maritime authorities to hear of the incident due to poor communication equipment. However, because of the fatal incident, it is referred to as ‘Asia’s Titanic’ 9. THE BLACK SWAN It is a Spanish war ship known as Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes. The warship sank in 1804 off Portugal territorial waters. However, in 2007 an American Company, Odyssey Marine Exploitation, discovered gold, worth of $500 million. However, the Spanish government made it known to be the rightful owner of the said gold, hence the case was decided in the US Supreme Court, and the court ordered the gold should be returned to Spanish authorities. 10. MS WORLD DISCOVERER It was a Danish cruise ship manufactured in 1974. The disaster occurred when the ship struck a rock at the Solomon Islands; all the passengers survived the incident.

10 Notable Shipwrecks in Africa

The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) estimates that there are over 3 million shipwrecks throughout the world at sea. A wrecked ship refers to a destruction or loss of a ship at sea. However there are unwanted and unprecedented events that actually make a ship to become wrecked at sea. Some of these events are: heavy storm; bad weather; collision with another ship; when the ship strikes a rock or iceberg; poor design of a ship; poor arrangement of cargo; navigation, to mention but a few. However, here are the notable shipwrecks in Africa:
  1. A ship known as HMS Birken Head was sunk near Cape Town in South Africa.
  2. In 1995, tourists discovered a shipwreck at Black Assarca.
  3. A ship known as MV Mtongwe sunk on April 27, 1994, in Kenya.
  4. A Greek oil tanker ship known as Katina P was sunk in Mozambique on April 26, 1992, caused by heavy storm.
  5. On December, 1994, a fire accident caused a ship known as MS Achille Lauro to sink in Somalia territorial waters.
  6. On September, 2011, a ship known as MV Spice Islander I was sunk in Somalia.
  7. On May 21, 1996, in Mwanza area of Lake Victoria a ship known as MV Bukoba was sunk.
  8. In addition, Lake Victoria in 2005, a ship known as MV kabaleja was sunk when it collided with another ship known as MV Kaawa in Ssese Island area.
  9. On April 1st, 1999, a ship in Nigeria moving from Port-Harcourt to Nembe capsized.
  10. On September 2002, a Senegalese passenger’s ship capsized near Gambia water territorial areas.
In conclusion, a shipwreck is always a great disaster and great loss that every marine company must try to avoid when preparing a ship for a journey. This is because a shipwreck may occur due to a human error and at times, it does occur accidentally. Nonetheless, every marine sailor must not throw safety into the wind when travelling by sea.

Sea Port Transportation: by Owinje Peter.

Maritime transport is very important to any nation in the world; it plays an important role in international and domestic trade. Hence, absence of this transport mode in a country will surely bring negative effects on its economy. Moreover, water transportation also plays an important role to compliment other modes of transport such as rail, road and air transport. Its capacity to carry heavy cargoes at less expensive cost makes other modes of transport and their infrastructures not to be overstretched. However, 6 major importance of maritime transportation are here below:
  1. It promotes trade and commerce: sea transportation supports the domestic economy through importation of raw materials and equipments or machines used by manufacturers. This is an important role it plays in the economy of any nation.
  2. It creates revenue and availability of finance: sea port transport generates a lot of money to the nation; it is a viable source of income that cannot be overlooked or undermined. For instance, in Nigeria, the Nigeria Sea Port source of revenue among others include, fees from registration of ship and mortgages, custom duties, port charges and tariffs realized by the Nigeria corporate taxes from shipping companies, fees for licensing and forward agents, registration of shipping and companies and so on.
  3. It develops economic related activities: sea port transport aids the growth of some industries which are purposely established because of maritime transport, such industries are associated to maritime industry, e.g. Shipbuilding Company, logistics, etc.
Banks may also be interested in financing shipping companies or acquisition of vessels. All of these are economic related activities to maritime industry.
  1. It creates employment opportunities: maritime transport plays important roles in economy of a nation because it creates employment opportunities for jobless people, thereby reducing social problems that can be caused by unemployment. Hence, the saying an idle hand is a devil workshop.
  2. It enhances industrial growth and development: it is important to note that some entrepreneurs prefer to locate their firms near seaport in order reduce the high cost of transportation and to enhance ease accessibility to raw materials.
  3. 6. It fosters international unity

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